Sodium alginate/HPMC/liquid paraffin emulsified (o/w) gel beads, by factorial design approach; and in vitro analysis

  • Sunil Kumar Yadava
  • Jayesh S. Patil
  • Vinod J. Mokale
  • Jitendra B. Naik
Original Paper


The present study involved development of a novel sodium alginate (SA)/HPMC/light liquid paraffin emulsified (o/w) gel beads containing Diclofenac sodium (DS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient and its site specific delivery by using hard gelatin capsule fabricated by enteric coated Eudragit L-100 polymer. Emulsified gel beads were formulated by 3-level factorial design, ionic gelatin method. The obtained beads were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction and Field emission scanning electron microscope analysis. The variables such as SA (X1), HPMC (X2), were optimized for drug loading and in vitro drug release with the help of response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM analysis predicted that SA was significant for both drug loading (p = 0.0005) and drug release (p = 0.0041). HPMC was only significant for drug release (p = 0.0154). The cross-product contribution (2FI) and quadratic model were found to be adequate and statistically accurate with correlation value (R2) of 0.9054 and 0.9450 to predict the drug loading and drug release respectively. An increase in concentration of HPMC and SA decreases the drug loading as well as the drug release. The obtained optimum values of drug loading and DS released were 7.43 % and 85.54 % respectively, which were well in agreement with the predicted value by RSM.


Sodium alginate Diclofenac sodium Factorial design Emulsified gel bead Enteric coated capsule 



Authors are very much thankful to the University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi for providing financial assistance to carry out this research work. Authors gratefully acknowledge Natco Pharma Limited, (Hyderabad, India) for providing a gift sample of Diclofenac sodium.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sunil Kumar Yadava
    • 1
  • Jayesh S. Patil
    • 1
  • Vinod J. Mokale
    • 1
  • Jitendra B. Naik
    • 1
  1. 1.University Institute of Chemical TechnologyNorth Maharashtra UniversityJalgaonIndia

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