Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 70, Issue 3, pp 428–440 | Cite as

Phase transformation and crystalline growth of 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia

  • Cheng-Li Wang
  • Weng-Sing Hwang
  • Hsueh-Liang Chu
  • Feng-Lin Yen
  • Chi-Yuen Hwang
  • Chi-Shiung Hsi
  • Huey-Er Lee
  • Moo-Chin Wang
Original Paper


The phase transformation and crystalline growth of 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ) precursor powders have been investigated using the coprecipitation route, using zirconium oxide chloride octahydrate (ZrOCl2·8H2O) and yttrium nitrate (Y(NO3)3·6H2O) as the initial materials. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED), and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) were utilized to characterize the behavior of phase transformation and crystalline growth of the 4Y-PSZ precursor powders after calcined. Tetragonal ZrO2 crystallization occurred at about 718.2 K. The activation energy of tetragonal ZrO2 crystallization was 227.0 ± 17.4 kJ/mol, obtained by a non-isothermal method. The growth morphology parameter (n) and growth mechanism index were close to 2.0, showing that tetragonal ZrO2 had a plate-like morphology. The crystalline size of tetragonal ZrO2 increased from 7.9 to 27.6 nm when the calcination temperature was increased from 973 to 1,273 K. The activation energies of tetragonal ZrO2 growth were 14.97 ± 0.33 and 84.46 ± 6.65 kJ/mol when precursor powders after calcined from 723–973 and 973–1,273 K, respectively.


Phase transformation Crystalline growth Activation energy 4Y-PSZ 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan, Republic of China, under Grant 102-EC-17-A-08-S1-142. The authors and also deeply thank Prof. M.H. Hon and Mr. S.Y. Yau for offering valuable advice and suggestions on the experiments and analyses.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheng-Li Wang
    • 1
  • Weng-Sing Hwang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hsueh-Liang Chu
    • 1
  • Feng-Lin Yen
    • 3
  • Chi-Yuen Hwang
    • 4
  • Chi-Shiung Hsi
    • 5
  • Huey-Er Lee
    • 6
    • 7
  • Moo-Chin Wang
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan
  2. 2.Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems EngineeringNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic ScienceKaohsiung Medical UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Resources EngineeringNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan
  5. 5.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNational United UniversityMiao LiTaiwan
  6. 6.Department of DentistryKaohsiung Medical UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan
  7. 7.Department of DentistryKaohsiung Medical University Chung Ho Memorial HospitalKaohsiungTaiwan

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