Structural stability and electrochemical properties of Gd-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles prepared by sol–gel
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Cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic Gd-doped zirconia nanoparticles with nominal composition GdxZr1−xO2 in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2, were prepared by annealing dried gels of Gd-containing zirconia at temperatures over the range between 450 and 1,300 °C. The synthesized zirconia-based nanoparticles with increased gadolinium load were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, and transmission electron microscopy. The stabilization of the crystalline forms of Gd-doped ZrO2 solid solutions depends on the amount of Gd dopant and the annealing temperature. For low Gd loads in GdxZr1−xO2 being x < 0.05, the tetragonal form is the single phase up to 1,100 °C, whereas the monoclinic is the crystalline form detected up to 1,300 °C. Within the range of compositions 0.05 ≤ x < 0.1, is the tetragonal the only stabilized zirconia crystalline structure over the whole range of temperature up to 1,300 °C. For higher Gd-contents, in the range 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.2, is the cubic zirconia form the only stable phase for the whole range of annealing temperatures. Solid-state electrochemistry of the gadolinium-doped zirconia performed by the voltammetry of microparticles approach allowed distinguishing different electrochemical answers of Gd cation associated with slightly different local coordination surrounding of cations. Enantioselective electrocatalytic effect of monoclinic Gd-doped ZrO2 on the oxidation of l-(+)-tartaric acid and d-(−)-tartaric was also studied.
KeywordsGadolinium–zirconia solid solutions Nanoparticles Sol–gel preparation Electrochemical behaviour Enantioselectivity
This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Spain through project Consolider Ingenio 2010 CSD2010-00065 and Generalitat Valenciana through project Prometeo 2011/008.
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