Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 63, Issue 2, pp 202–210 | Cite as

Phenol removal from aqueous solution by carbon xerogel

  • Liana Alvares Rodrigues
  • Tiago Moreira Bastos Campos
  • Manoel Orlando Alvarez-Mendes
  • Aparecido dos reis Coutinho
  • Kumiko Koibuchi Sakane
  • Gilmar Patrocínio Thim


Carbon xerogel (CX) was used for phenol adsorption from aqueous solution. CX was synthesized by sol–gel polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde using sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as catalyst. Then, it was dried by convective drying technique and pyrolyzed under inert atmosphere. Phenol adsorption kinetics was very fast, what was attributed to the presence of open pore structure. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption process could be fitted to a pseudo-second-order model and the particle diffusion process is the rate-limiting step of the adsorption. The phenol removal was maximum and unaffected by pH changes when the initial pH of the phenol solution was in the range of 3–8. The optimum adsorbent dose obtained for phenol adsorption onto CX was 0.075 g/50 cm3 solution. The Langmuir model described the adsorption process better than the Freundlich isotherm model and the monolayer adsorption capacity is 32 mg g−1. Among the desorbing solutions used in this study, the most efficient desorbent was EtOH (100 %) which released about 87 % of phenol bound with the CX.


Carbon xerogel Phenol Adsorption 



The authors gratefully acknowledge CAPES for financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liana Alvares Rodrigues
    • 1
  • Tiago Moreira Bastos Campos
    • 1
  • Manoel Orlando Alvarez-Mendes
    • 2
  • Aparecido dos reis Coutinho
    • 2
  • Kumiko Koibuchi Sakane
    • 3
  • Gilmar Patrocínio Thim
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica-ITA/CTASão José dos CamposBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de materiais carbonososUniversidade Metodista de PiracicabaSanta Bárbara d′OesteBrazil
  3. 3.Universidade do Vale do ParaíbaSão José dos CamposBrazil

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