Study of the crystallization pathway of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 thin films obtained by chemical solution deposition
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Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) thin films were fabricated by a chemical solution deposition (CSD) method. A route involving the reaction between sodium and bismuth acetates and titanium n-butoxide was used to synthesise the different precursor solutions. The thermal decomposition and crystallization pathways of different modified precursors have been studied by thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques. As a consequence of the modification of the precursor solutions and their different thermal behaviour, the nucleation of the stable perovskite phase happens at different temperatures depending on each case but is found to be at temperatures as low as 500 °C. For the thin film processing, the drying and pyrolysis temperatures were chosen according to the thermogravimetric data to minimize the strain resulting from the shrinkage of the film during the elimination of solvents and organic ligands. The crystallization process was studied and the experimental results are discussed in terms of structural, microstructural and electrical features investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy in tapping and piezo-force modes and X-ray diffraction.
KeywordsCSD Thin films Sodium bismuth titanate Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 Lead-free perovskite
The authors would like to thank Jena Cilensek (Institute Jozef Stefan—Ljubljana/Slovenia), Valérie Coudert (SPCTS—Limoges/France), Dr. Aiying Wu and Prof. Dr. Paula Maria Vilarinho (University of Aveiro/Portugal) for their helps in the experiments and precious discussions. They acknowledge the financial support of the EU Centre of Excellence SICER and POLECER.
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