Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 173–182 | Cite as

Reduction of Cr(VI) Assisted by Sol-Gel Generated Electron-Hole Centers

  • M. A. Zaitoun
  • L. S. Bailey
  • J. F. Brinkley
  • C. M. Dickerson
  • C. T. Lin


We report an in-situ harvesting technique of electron-hole (e-h+) carriers (e.g., the defect electrons in the O2 − matrix and the self-trapped holes, Si–O–Si) generated during sol-gel processing. In the absence of redox species, the e-h+ centers created during room temperature sol-gel polycondensation steps are quickly annihilated and deactivated. However, when Cr(VI) ions are pre-dispersed in sol-gel solutions, the ejected electrons can be effectively harvested for the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) ions which are encapsulated in the silica gel matrix. The Cr(VI) ions, the possible intermediate oxidation states of chromium ions such as Cr(V) and/or Cr(IV), and the stable Cr(III)-hole complexes in the sol-gel matrix are investigated using uv-visible spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The chemical stability of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in sol-gel networks is compared to that in aqueous solutions. The results indicate that the utilization of e-h+ carriers generated in the sol-gel can be an effective and selective means for investigating the redox process of Cr(VI) and encapsulating the stable Cr(III) ions in the confined sol-gel environments.


sol-gel electron-hole centers chromate reduction and intermediates 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Zaitoun
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. S. Bailey
    • 1
  • J. F. Brinkley
    • 1
  • C. M. Dickerson
    • 1
  • C. T. Lin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalb
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryMu'tah UniversityMu'tah/Al-Karak

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