The ground state half-lives of 69Ge, 73Se, 83Sr, 63Zn, and the half-life of the 1/2− isomer in 85Sr have been measured with high precision using the photoactivation technique at an unconventional bremsstrahlung facility that features a repurposed medical electron linear accelerator. The γ-ray activity was counted over about 6 half-lives with a high-purity germanium detector, enclosed into an ultra low-background lead shield. The measured half-lives are: T1/2(69Ge) = 38.82 ± 0.07 (stat) ± 0.06 (sys) h; T1/2(73Se) = 7.18 ± 0.02 (stat) ± 0.004 (sys) h; T1/2(83Sr) = 31.87 ± 1.16 (stat) ± 0.42 (sys) h; T1/2(85mSr) = 68.24 ± 0.84 (stat) ± 0.11 (sys) min; T1/2(63Zn) = 38.71 ± 0.25 (stat) ± 0.10 (sys) min. These high-precision half-life measurements will contribute to a more accurate determination of corresponding ground-state photoneutron reaction rates, which are part of a broader effort of constraining statistical nuclear models needed to calculate stellar nuclear reaction rates relevant for the astrophysical p-process nucleosynthesis.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Burbidge EM, Burbidge GR, Fowler WA, Foyle F (1957) Synthesis of the elements in stars. Rev Mod Phys 29:547–650
Lambert David L (1992) The p-nuclei: abundances and origins. Astron Astrophys Rev 3:201–256
Arnould M, Goriely S (2003) The p-process of stellar nucleosynthesis: astrophysics and nuclear physics status. Phys Rep 384:1–84
Mohr P, Vogt K, Babilon M, Enders J, Hartmann T, Hutter C, Rauscher T, Volz S, Zilges A (2000) Experimental simulation of a stellar photon bath by bremsstrahlung: the astrophysical γ-process. Phys Lett B 488:127–130
Masumoto K, Segebade C (2006) Photon activation analysis. Wiley, New York
Mohr P, Vogt K, Babilon M, Enders J, Hartmann T, Kaiser H, Schiesser D, Schmitt S, Volz S, Wissel F, Zilges A (1999) Real photon scattering up to 10 MeV: the improved facility at the Darmstadt electron accelerator S-DALINAC. Nucl Instrum Method A 423:480–488
Schwengner R, Beyer R, Dönau, Grosse E, Hartmann A, Junghans AR, Maliion S, Rusev G, Schilling KD, Schulze W, Wanger A (2005) The photon-scattering facility at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE. Nucl Instrum Method A 555:211–219
Mohr P, Brieger S, Witucki G, Maetz M (2007) Photoactivation at a clinical LINAC: the 197Au(γ,n)196Au reaction slightly above the threshold. Nucl Instrum Method A 580:1201–1208
Stoulos S, Vagena E (2018) Indirect measurement of bremsstrahlung photons and photoneutrons cross sections of 204Pb and Sb isotopes compared with TALYS simulations. Nucl Phys A 980:1–14
Vagena E, Stoulos S (2018) Ytterbium (γ,n) average cross-sections data near to photodisintegration reaction threshold. Eur Phys J A 54:153
Vagena E, Stoulos S (2017) Average cross section measurement for 162Er (γ,n) reaction compared with theoretical calculations using TALYS. Nucl Phys A 957:259–273
Vagena E, Stoulos S (2017) Photodisinthegration average cross sections of dysprosium p-nuclei near (γ,n) reaction threshold. Eur Phys J A 53:85
Eckert and Ziegler Isotope Products. https://www.ezag.com
Live Chart of Nuclides–Nuclear structure and decay data. https://nds.iaea.org/
ROOT—Data analysis framework. https://ph-root-2.cern.ch/
Nesaraja CD (2014) Nuclear data sheets for A = 69. Nucl Data Sheets 115:1–134
Balraj S, Chen J (2019) Nuclear data sheets for A = 73. Nucl Data Sheets 158:1–257
Balraj S, Chen J (2014) Nuclear data sheets for A = 85. Nucl Data Sheets 116:1–162
Erjun B, Junde H (2001) Nuclear data sheets for A = 63. Nucl Data Sheets 92:147–251
Mccutchan EA (2015) Nuclear data sheets for A = 83. Nucl Data Sheets 125:201–394
Zoller WH, Gordon GE, Walters WB (1969) Decay of 56 min 69gZn, 14 h 69mZn and 39 h 69Ge. Nucl Phys A 124:15–33
Marlow KW, Fass A (1969) The radioactive decay of 73gSe and 73mSe. Nucl Phys A 132:339–352
Bormann M, Feddersen HK, Holscher HH, Scobel W, Wagner H (1976) n, 2n) Anregungsfunktionen fur 54Fe, 70Ge, 74Se, 85Rb, 86,88Sr, 89Y, 92Mo, 204Hg im Neutronenenergiebereich 13–18 MeV. Z Phys A 277:203
Grütter A (1982) Decay data of 81,82m,83,84m+gRb and 83,85m,87mSr. Int J Appl Radiat Isot 33:456–461
Lyon WS, Ross HH, Bate LC, Dyer FF, Eldridge JS, Emery JF, Handley TH, Kubota H, Lupica SB, Reynolds SA, Ricci E, Strain JE, Zittel HE, Northcutt KJ (1970) Radioisotopes characteristics and measurements. ORNL 4636:24
Emery JF, Reynolds SA, Wyatt EI, Gleason GI (1972) Half-lives of radionuclides—IV. Nucl Sci Eng 48:319
Bubb IF, Naqvi SIH, Wolfson JL (1971) Gamma rays following the decay of 85Sr and 85mSr. Nucl Phys A 24:252–256
Grütter A (1982) Decay data of 55–58Co, 57Ni, 60,61Cu and ^2,63Zn. Int J Appl Radiat Isot 33:533–535
We are indebted to Professor H. J. Karwowski for his thorough reading and editorial comments on manuscript drafts. Additionally, we would like to thank J. E. Mayer for assisting in the initial data reduction and Dr. P. Mohr for reading and insightful commenting on the early manuscript draft. Last but not least, we highly appreciated the thorough reviews by the anonymous reviewers. A. B. and T. A. H. acknowledge support by the National Science Foundation through Grant No. Phys-1913258. J. A. S. acknowledges that this work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under the Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Hain, T.A., Pendleton, S.J., Silano, J.A. et al. High-precision measurements of half‐lives for 69Ge, 73Se, 83Sr, 85mSr, and 63Zn radionuclides relevant to the astrophysical p-process via photoactivation at the Madison Accelerator Laboratory. J Radioanal Nucl Chem (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-020-07589-5
- Nuclear reactions: 70Ge(γ,n)69Ge, 74Se(γ,n)73Se, 84Sr(γ,n)83Sr, 86Sr(γ,n)85mSr, 64Zn(γ,n)63Zn
- Off‐line γ-ray spectrometry