Chemical, physical and radiological evaluation of raw materials and geopolymers for building applications

Abstract

The main goal of this study was the evaluation of physical–chemical, as well as radiological properties of residual materials used for geopolymer synthesis and those final products as a possible application as new materials in a civil engineering industry. Concentration of 40K and radionuclides from the 238U and 232Th decay series in waste precursors, their metaphases and geopolymer samples synthetized by alkali activation were determined together with corresponding absorbed dose rate (\(\dot{D}\)) and the annual effective dose rate. Natural activity concentrations in the alkali-activated material (geopolymer) were found to be lower than that of both residual materials and calcined ones.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. 1.

    O’Brien RS, Cooper MB (1998) Technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM): pathway analysis and radiological impact. Appl Radiat Isot 49:227–239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Ivanović M, Lj Kljajević, Nenadović M, Bundaleski N, Vukanac I, Todorović B, Nenadović S (2018) Physicochemical and radiological characterization of kaolin and its polzmerization products. Mater Construct 68:330

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Beretka J, Mathew PJ (1985) Natural radioactivity of Australian building materials, industrial wastes and by-products. Health Phys 48:87–95

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    UNSCEAR (2000) Sources and effects of ionizing radiation—United Nations Scientific Committe on the effects of Atomic Radiation, UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes. United Nations, New York

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Merdanoglu B, Altinsoy N (2006) Radioactivity concentration and dose assessment for soil samples from Kestanbol granite area. Turkey, Radiat Prot Dosim. 121:399–405

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Nuccetelli C, Risica S (2008) Thorium series radionuclides in the environment: measurement, dose assessment and regulation. Appl Radiat Isot 66:1657–1660

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Riise G (1990) A study of radionuclide association with soil components using a sequential extraction procedure. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 142:531–538

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Schmidt U (2003) Enhancing phytoextraction: the effect of chemical soil manipulation on mobility, plant accumulation, and leaching of heavy metals. J Environ Qual 32:1939–1954

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Nenadović S, Nenadović M, Lj Kljajević, Vukanac I, Poznanović M, Radosavljević AM, Pavlović V (2012) Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soil: assessment of external exposure of population in cultivated and undisturbed areas. Sci Total Environ 429:309–316

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Cooper MB (2005) Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in Australian industries-review of current inventories and future generation. A Report prepared for the Radiation Health and Safety Advisory Council, Australia

  11. 11.

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (2006) Low-dose extrapolation of radiation- related cancer risk. Publication 99. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier

  12. 12.

    Ramli AT, Wahab MA, Hussein A, Wood K (2005) Environmental 238U and 232Th concentration measurements in an area of high level natural background radiation at Palong, Johor. Malaysia. J Environ Radioact. 80:287–304

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Mkandawire M, Taubert B, Gert Dudel G (2005) Resource manipulation in uranium and arsenic attenuation by Lemnagibba L. (duckweed) in tailing water of a former uranium mine. Water Air Soil Pollut 166:83–101

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Directive 2013/59/EURATOM 5—December 2013, Official European Union 17/01/2014, 2013

  15. 15.

    Nenadović S, Lj Kljajević, Nešić M, Petković M, Trivunac K, Pavlović V (2017) Structure analysis of geopolymers synthesized from clay originated from Serbia. Environmen Earth Sci 76(2):76–79

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Nenadovic SS, Nenadovic MT, Vukanac IS, Djordjevic AR, Dragicevic SS, Ljesevic MA (2010) Vertical distribution of 137 Cs in cultivated and undistrurbed areas. Nucl Technol Radioat Prot 25:30–36

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Nenadovic SS, Musci G, LjM Kljajevic, Mirkovic MM, Nenadovic MT, Kristaly F, Vukanac IS (2017) Physicochemical, mineralogical and radiological properties of red mud samples as secondary raw materials. Nucl Technol Radioat Prot 32(3):261–266

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Nenadovic S, Lj Kljajevic, Markovic S, Omerasevic M, Jovanovic U, Andric V, Vukanac I (2015) Natural diatomite (Rudovci, Serbia) as adsorbet for removal Cs from radioactive waste liquids. Sci Sinter 47(3):299–309

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Davidovits J (2013) Geopolymer cement, a review, Institute Geopolymer

  20. 20.

    Davidovits J (2008) Geopolymer Chemistry and Applications, 2nd ed. 3rd ed. 2011, 4th ed. 2015, Geopolymer Institute, ISBN 4th ed. 9782951482098

  21. 21.

    Provis JL, van Deventer JSJ (eds) (2009) Geopolymers. Structure, processing, properties and industrial applications. Woodhead Publishing Limited

  22. 22.

    Messina F, Ferone C, Colangelo F, Roviello G, Cioffi R (2018) Alkali activated waste fly ash as sustainable composite: influence of curing and pozzolanic admixtures on the early-age physico-mechanical properties and residual strength after exposure at elevated temperature. Compos B 132:161–169

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Messina F, Ferone C, Molino A, Roviello G, Colangelo F, Molino B, Cioffi R (2017) Synergistic recycling of calcined clay sediments and water potabilization sludge as geopolymer precursors: upscaling from binders to precast paving cement-free bricks. Constr Build Mater 133:14–26

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Lirer S, Liguori B, Capasso I, Flora A, Caputo D (2017) Mechanical and chemical properties of composite materials made of dredged sediments in a fly-ash based geopolymer. J Environ Manage 191:1–7

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    International Crystallographical Database (ICDD). ICDD PDF-2/4 Release 2012. In: 12

  26. 26.

    IAEA (1989) Measurement of radionuclides in food and the environment, technical report Series No 295, Vienna, Austria

  27. 27.

    Tchakouté HK, Henning Rüscher C, Hinsch M, Yankwa Djobo JN, Kamseu E, Leonelli C (2017) Utilization of sodium waterglass from sugar cane bagasse ash as a new alternative hardener for producing metakaolin-based geopolymer cement. Geochemistry 77:257–266

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Ferone C, Colangelo F, Messina F, Iucolano F, Liguori B, Cioffi R (2013) Coal combustion wastes reuse in low energy artificial aggregates manufacturing. Materials 6:5000–5015

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Komnitsas K, Zaharaki D (2007) Geopolymerisation: a review and prospects for the minerals industry. Miner Eng 20:1261–1277

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Ferone C, Capasso I, Bonati A, Roviello G, Montagnaro F, Santoro L, Turco R, Cioffi R (2019) Sustainable management of water potabilization sludge by means of geopolymers production. J Clean Product. 229:1–9

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Vidmar T (2005) EFFTRAN—a monte carlo efficiency transfer code for gamma-ray spectrometry. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res Sect A 550:603–608

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Villieras F, YvoN J, Cases JM, De Donato P, Lhote F, Baeza R (1994) Development of microporosity in clinochlore upon heating. Clays Clay Miner 42:679–688

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Lj Kljajević, Melichova Z, Kisić D, Nenadović M, Todorović B, Pavlović V, Nenadović S (2018) The influence of alumino-silicate matrix composition on surface hydrophobic properties. Sci Sinter 5:163–173

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Theo Kloprogge J, Komarneni S, Amonette JE (1999) Synthesis of smectite clay minerals: a critical review. Clays Clay Miner 47:529–554

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Tyagi B, Chudasama CD, Jasra RV (2006) Determination of structural modification in acid activated montmorillonite clay by FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectrochim Acta, Part A 64A:273–278

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Shahraki BK, Mehrabi B, Gholizadeh K, Mohammadinasab M (2011) Thermal behavior of calcite as expansive agent. J Min Metall. Sect B 47B(1):89–97

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Taylor WR (1990) Proceedings of application of infrared spectroscopy to studies of silicate glass structure: examples from the melilite glasses and the systems Na2O–SiO2and Al2O3–SiO2. Indian Acad Sci. (Earth and Planetary Science) 99:99–117

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Gervais F, Blin A, Massiot D, Coutures JP, Chopinet MH, Naudin F (1987) Infrared reflectivity spectroscopy of silicate glasses. J Non-Cryst Solids 89:384–401

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Leonelli C, Romagnoli M (2011) Geopolimeri: polimeri inorganici chimicamente attivati, ed I.Cer.s., Bologna

  40. 40.

    Chen L, Wang Z, Wang Y, Feng J (2016) Preparation and properties of alkali activated metakaolin-based geopolymer. Materials 9:1–12

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The research was funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Snežana S. Nenadović.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nenadović, S.S., Ferone, C., Nenadović, M.T. et al. Chemical, physical and radiological evaluation of raw materials and geopolymers for building applications. J Radioanal Nucl Chem (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-020-07250-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Radionuclides
  • Clay sediments
  • Geopolymer
  • Building materials
  • XRD