Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations for proton, deuteron and α-particle induced nuclear reactions on calcium: special relevance to the production of 43,44Sc

  • M. Alabyad
  • Gehan Y. Mohamed
  • H. E. Hassan
  • S. Takács
  • F. Ditrói


The cross sections of the proton, deuteron and α-particle induced nuclear reactions on Ca were determined experimentally up to 20 MeV. The obtained experimental data were validated theoretically using EMPIRE-3.2 and TALYS-1.6. The production yields of 43Sc and 44m,gSc radioisotopes were calculated and discussed in view of the reported experimental data. Of all the production routes, the 44Ca(p,n)44m,gSc and 43Ca(d,n)44m,gSc showed highest yields of 1206 MBq/µA.h (15 → 5 MeV) and 204 MBq/µA.h (8 → 0 MeV), respectively. The α-particles induced reactions on natCa or 40Ca were found to be suitable for producing considerable activity of 43Sc at energy range 8–20 MeV.


43Sc 44m,gSc radionuclides Model codes natCa(p,x)44m,gSc reactions Excitation function Production yield 



This work was supported and funded by the Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen, Hungarian Academy of Science in Hungary, and the Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research & Technology (ASRT) in Cairo, Egypt. The authors acknowledge the staff and operators of Debrecen cyclotron for their help in performing irradiations. The coauthor M. Al-Abyad greatly appreciates the hospitality and support during his visit to the Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen, Hungary.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Alabyad
    • 1
  • Gehan Y. Mohamed
    • 1
  • H. E. Hassan
    • 1
  • S. Takács
    • 2
  • F. Ditrói
    • 2
  1. 1.Nuclear Physics Department, Cyclotron Facility, Nuclear Research CentreAtomic Energy AuthorityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI)DebrecenHungary

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