Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

, Volume 314, Issue 2, pp 907–915 | Cite as

Concentration of radon and physicochemical parameters in ground water around Kolar Gold Fields, Karnataka State, India

  • K. Umesha Reddy
  • C. Ningappa
  • J. Sannappa
  • D. R. Rangaswamy
  • E. Srinivasa


Concentration of radon and physicochemical parameters present in ground water collected from 65 bore wells of 30 different locations around Kolar Gold Fields, Kolar District, India are estimated by emanometry technique and chemical analysis. Activity of radium present in rock samples of the study area using HPGe detector are presented and discussed in the manuscript. The average radon concentration in the collected water samples are ranged from 3.3 ± 0.8 to 122.9 ± 2.1 Bq l−1 with an average value of 46.9 ± 1.7 Bq l−1. Average value of activity concentration of radium is found to be 29.1 Bq kg−1.


Ground water Radon Emanometry Physicochemical parameters 



The authors express their sincere thanks to Dr. M.C. Subbaramu, Retired Scientist, BARC, Mumbai for his valuable inputs in completion of manuscript, Dr. N. Karnunakara, Professor, The Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Radioactivity (CARER), Mangala Gangothri, Mangalore University, Mangaluru, Karnataka for providing HPGe facility; Dr. Ravikumar, Principal, SJCIT and Head, Department of Civil Engineering, SJCIT, Chikkballapur, Karnataka, India for providing instrumentation to carryout chemical analysis.


  1. 1.
    Dickson BL (1990) Radium in groundwater, In: The environmental behavior of radium, International 27th Atomic Energy Agency Reports Series. 310(1): 335–372Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Choubey VM, Bartarya SK, Saini NK, Ramola RC (2001) Radon measurements in groundwater of inter-montane Doon valley, Outer Himalaya: effects of geohydrology and neotectonic activity. Environ Geol 40(3):257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Srilatha MC, Rangaswamy DR, Sannappa J (2014) Studies on concentration of radon and physicochemical parameters in ground water around Ramanagara and Tumkur districts, Karnataka, India. Int J Adv Sci Tech Res 2(4):641–660Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    WHO (1991) Guidelines for drinking water, vol 2. CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, p 264Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Iveta S, Karol H, Monika M, Anna P (2009) The effect of meteorological parameters on radon concentration in borehole air and water. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 283(1):101–109Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    UNSCEAR (2006) Report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes. In Effects of ionizing radiation vol. 2Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    UNSCEAR (2000) Report to the general assembly with scientific annexes. United Nations, Annexure B, New York, pp 97–105Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shivakumara BC, Chandrashekara MS, Kavitha E, Paramesh L (2014) Studies on 226Ra and 222Rn concentration in drinking water of Mandya region, Karnataka State, India. J Radiat Res Appl Sci 7(4):491–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    BEIR VI (1999) Report of the committee on the biological effects of ionizing radiation. Health effects of exposure to radon. National Research Council, The National Academies Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    USEPA (1999) Radon in drinking water health risk reduction and cost analysis. Fed Reg 64(38):9560–9599Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mayya YS, Eappen KP, Nambi KSV (1998) Methodology for mixed field inhalation dosimetry in monazite areas using a twin cup dosimeter with three track detectors. Radiat Prot Dosim 77(3):177–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Strain CD, Watson JE, Fong SW (1979) An evaluation of 226Ra and 222Rn concentrations in ground and surface water near a phosphate mining and manufacturing facility. Health Phys 37:779–783Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Raghavayya M, Iyengar MAR, Markose PM (1980) Estimation of 226Ra by emanometry. Bull Radiat Prot 3(4):11–14Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vitz E (1991) Towards a standard method for determining waterborne radon. Health Phys 60(4):817–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krishnan MS (1982) Geology of India and Burma, 6th edn. Batra Art Printers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ningappa C, Sannappa J, Chandrashekara MS, Paramesh L (2008) Concentrations of radon and its daughter products in and around Bangalore city. Radiat Prot Dosim 130(4):459–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ningappa C, Sannappa J, Karunakara N (2008) Study on radionuclides in granite quarries of Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India. Radiat Prot Dosim 131(4):495–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Choubey VM, Mukherjee PK, Bajwa BS, Walia V (2007) Geological and tectonic influence on water–soil–radon relationship in Mandi–Manali area, Himachal Himalaya. Environ Geol 52:1163–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (2008) Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2008 report to the general assembly with scientific annexes. United NationsGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    European Commission (2001) Commission recommendation of 20th December 2001 on the protection of the public against exposure to radon in drinking water. 2001/982/Euratom, L344/85. Official Journal of the European CommissionGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    WHO (2008) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, vol 1. World Health Organization Publication, Geneva, pp 197–209Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    European Commission (1998) European drinking water directive 98/83/EC of 3rd November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption, Official Journal of the European Commission. 330Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Roba CA, Nita D, Cosma C, Codrea V, Olah S (2012) Correlations between radium and radon occurrence and hydro geochemical features for various geothermal aquifers in North- western Romania. Geothermics 42:32–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) (1991) Analysis of water and waste water, BIS institutionGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Henryk B, Urszula P, Marta S, Ewa MB, Daria M (2014) Radon(222Rn) in underground drinking water supplies of the Southern Greater Poland Region. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 299:1307–1312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Binesh A, Mohammadi S, Mowavi AA, Parvaresh P (2010) Evaluation of the radiation dose from radon ingestion and inhalation in drinking water. Int J Water Res Environ Eng 2:174–178Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cosma C, Moldovan M, Dicu T, Kovacs T (2008) Radon in water from Transylvania (Romania). Radiat Meas 43:1423–1428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Prasad G, Prasad Y, Gusain GS, Romala RC (2008) Measurement of radon and thoron levels in soil, water and indoor atmosphere of Budhakedar in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Radiat Meas 43:375–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nikolopoulos D, Louizi A (2008) Study of indoor radon and radon in drinking water in Greece and Cyprus: implications to exposure and dose. Radiat Meas 43:1305–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gopal K, Rao MS, Kumar CP, Prabhat S (2015) Radon concentration in groundwater of east coast of West Bengal, India. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 303:2221–2225Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rani A, Mehra R, Duggal V (2013) Radon monitoring in groundwater samples from some areas of Northern Rajasthan, India, Using a RAD7 detector. Radiat Prot Dosim 153:496–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rangaswamy DR, Srinivasa E, Srilatha MC, Sannappa J (2015) Measurement of radon concentration in drinking water of Shimoga district, Karnataka, India. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. doi: 10.1007/s10967-015-4216-0 Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Srinivasa E, Rangaswamy DR, Sannappa J (2015) Determination of radon activity concentration in drinking water and evaluation of the annual effective dose in Hassan district, Karnataka state, India. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. doi: 10.1007/s10967-015-4034-4 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Umesha Reddy
    • 1
  • C. Ningappa
    • 2
  • J. Sannappa
    • 3
  • D. R. Rangaswamy
    • 3
  • E. Srinivasa
    • 4
  1. 1.Research and Development centreBharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsVidya Vikas Institute of Engineering and TechnologyMysuruIndia
  3. 3.Department of Studies in PhysicsKuvempu UniversityShimogaIndia
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsIDSG Govt. CollegeChickmagalurIndia

Personalised recommendations