Natural radioactivity and hazard-level assessment of Portland cements in Turkey
The natural radioactivity levels and some radiological parameters of Turkish Portland cements (PC) originated in various regions were determined in this study. The activity concentration of cement samples for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were measured using a gamma-ray spectrometer with high purity germanium radiation detector. The PC samples had activity concentrations of 33.0, 16.7, and 239.5 Bq kg−1 for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The mean value of radium equivalent value (Raeq) was found to be 75.4 Bq kg−1. The radium equivalent values in the cement samples were lower than the acceptable level of 370 Bq kg−1. The calculated radiological parameters were found to be below the acceptance levels.
KeywordsNatural radioactivity Radiation hazard Gamma spectrometry Cement
This work was supported by Research Fund of the Istanbul University. Project Number: BYP-53529.
- 1.United National Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Sources and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly with Annexes, New York, USA 2000Google Scholar
- 8.Engin Y, Tarhan M (2012) TS EN (Turkish Standart European Norm) 197-1:2012 Standardı’ndaki Değişiklikler (in Turkish). Hazır Beton 67–71Google Scholar
- 9.El-Taher A (2012) Assessment of natural radioactivity levels and radiation hazards for building materials used in Qassim Area, Saudi Arabia. Rom J Phys 57:726–735Google Scholar
- 11.Ravisankar R, Vanasundari K, Suganya M, Raghu Y, Rajalakshmi A, Chandrasekaran A, Sivakumar S, Chandramohan J, Vijayagopal P, Venkatraman B (2014) Multivariate statistical analysis of radiological data of building materials used in Tiruvannamalai, Tamilnadu, India. Appl Radiat Isot 85:114–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.NEA-OECD (1979) Exposure to radiation from natural radioactivity in building materials. Report by NEA group of Experts of the Nuclear Energy Agency OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
- 13.EC (European Commission) (1999) Radiation Protection, 112- radiological protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials. Directorate-General Environment. Nuclear Safety and Civil ProtectionGoogle Scholar
- 16.Krieger R (1981) Radioactivity of construction materials. Betonw. Fert Technol 47:468–473Google Scholar
- 21.Malanca A, Pessina V, Dallara G (1993) Radionuclide content of building materials and gamma-ray dose rates in dwellings of Rio-Grande Do-Norte Brazil. Radiat Prot Dosim 48:199–203Google Scholar
- 38.Ahmad MN, Hussein AJA (1997) Natural radioactivity in Jordanian building materials and the associated radiation hazards. J Environ Radioact 39:9–22Google Scholar
- 39.Chong CS, Ahmed GU (1982) Gamma activity of some building materials in west Malaysia. Health Phys 43:272–273Google Scholar
- 43.Stranden E (1976) Some aspects on radioactivity of building materials. Phys Norv 8:167–173Google Scholar
- 47.Estokova A, Palacakova L (2013) Study of natural radioactivity of slovak cements. Chem Eng Trans 32:1675–1680Google Scholar