Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

, Volume 314, Issue 2, pp 669–674 | Cite as

Determination of tritium in water using electrolytic enrichment: methodology improvements

  • A. R. Gomes
  • J. Abrantes
  • A. Libânio
  • M. J. Madruga
  • M. Reis


The quality control of the method for tritium (3H) determination in water after electrolytic concentration by liquid scintillation counting measurements was improved considering more parameters in the uncertainty budget, besides the control charts to evaluate the electrolytic enrichment factor, the enrichment parameter and blank samples. The quality control upgrade of the method and the participation in proficiency tests allow its optimization. This methodology was applied to the determination of 3H activity concentrations in waters from different origins: surface, rain and drinking waters.


Tritium Waters Electrolytic enrichment LSC Quality control Uncertainty budget 



The C2TN authors gratefully acknowledge the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) support through the UID/Multi/04349/2013 Project.


  1. 1.
    Tables of evaluated data. Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel. Accessed April 2017
  2. 2.
    Bé MM, Chisté V, Dulieu E, Browne E, Baglin C, Chechev V, Kuzmenco N, Helmer R, Kondev F, MacMahon D, Lee KB (2006) Table of radionuclides (Vol. 3 – A = 3 to 244). Monographie BIPM-5. Pavillon de Breteuil, Sèvres, FranceGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gomes AR, Abrantes J, Libânio A, Madruga MJ, Reis M (2011) Improvement of the quality assurance in tritium analyses in waters by LSC. In: Cassette P (ed) LSC 2010, Advances in liquid scintillation spectrometry. Radiocarbon. ISBN: 978-0- 9638314-7-7. Arizona, USA, pp 211–218Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Madruga MJ, Sequeira MM, Gomes AR (2009) Determination of tritium in waters by liquid scintillation counting. In: Eikenberg J (ed) LSC 2008, International conference on advances in liquid scintillation spectrometry. Radiocarbon. ISBN: 978-0-9638314-6-0. Arizona, USA, pp 353–359Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gröning M, Rozanski K (2003) Accreditation Qual Assur 8:359. doi: 10.1007/s00769-003-0631-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    ISO Standard 9698:2010, Water quality—determination of tritium activity concentration—liquid scintillation counting method, 2nd ednGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Quantifying uncertainty in nuclear analytical measurements. IAEA., pp. 195–217. Accessed April 2017
  8. 8.
    Miller JN, Miller JC (2010) Statistics and chemometrics for analytical chemistry. Pearson Education Limited, HarlowGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    ISO/IEC Standard 17025:2005—General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, 2nd ednGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Evaluation of measurement data—guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. JCGM 100:2008. Accessed April 2017
  11. 11.
    ISO Standard 11929:2010, Determination of the characteristic limits (decision threshold, detection limit and limits of the confidence interval) for measurements of ionizing radiation. Fundamentals and application, 1st ednGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Logar JK, Glavic-Cindro D (2009) Establishment of low-level tritium laboratory. In: Eikenberg J (ed) LSC 2008, International conference on advances in liquid scintillation spectrometry. Radiocarbon. ISBN: 978-0-9638314-6-0. Arizona, USA, pp 241–249Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Baeza A, Garcia E, Miró C (1999) A procedure for the determination of very low activity levels of tritium in water samples. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 241(1):93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    IARMA ETRIT-PT-2014 (2014) IARMA proficiency test on the determination of tritium in water at environmental levelsGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Trinidad JA, Gascó C, Llauradó M (2016) Evaluación de la Intercomparación CSN/Ciemat-2015 entre Laboratorios Nacionales de Radiactividad Ambiental (Agua)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    European Directive 2013/51 EURATOM of 22 October 2013-laying down requirements for the protection of the health of the general public with regard to radioactive substances in water intended for human consumption. OJEU L296/12, 7.11.2013Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. R. Gomes
    • 1
  • J. Abrantes
    • 1
  • A. Libânio
    • 1
  • M. J. Madruga
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Reis
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratório de Proteção e Segurança Radiológica, Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversidade de LisboaBobadela LRSPortugal
  2. 2.Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversidade de LisboaBobadela LRSPortugal

Personalised recommendations