Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

, Volume 314, Issue 2, pp 715–719 | Cite as

Direct LSC method for determination of bio-origin by C-14 measurement

  • Romana Krištof
  • Jasmina Kožar Logar


The aim of the research was to test the generalized direct liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) method for bio-origin determination by measurement of C-14. Examples of diversified items with known and unknown bio-origin were measured by liquid scintillation counting and analyzed by procedures, developed for fuel samples. Bio-origin of fuels, lubricants and monomer resins were successfully determined via direct LSC method after simple sample preparation with acceptable accuracy and trueness despite their diversity in color, viscosity, density or chemical composition.


Direct LSC method Biolubricants Biofuels Monomer resins Quench 



Authors would like to thank company Melamin d.o.o. (Kočevje, Slovenia) for their generous donation of samples, their support and interest for cooperation in research field. The special thanks goes also to the National Customs Laboratory of Slovenia which initiated our interest to fuels and made our participation on the inter-laboratory comparisons possible.


  1. 1.
    Oliveira JS, Montalvão R, Daher L et al (2006) Determination of methyl ester contents in biodiesel blends by FTIR-ATR and FTNIR spectroscopies. Talanta 69:1278–1284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Noakes JE, Norton GA, Culp R et al (2007) A comparison of analytical methods for the certification Of biobased products. Radiocarbon 49:259–272Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ASTM (2012) ASTM D6866–12 standard test methods for determining the biobased content of solid, liquid, and gaseous samples using radiocarbon analysis. ASTM International, EmeryvilleGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    DIN (2014) DIN 51637:2014-02 Liquid petroleum products—determination of the bio-based hydrocarbon content in diesel fuels and middle distillates using liquid scintillation method. 19Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Norton GA, Cline AM, Thompson GC (2012) Use of radiocarbon analyses for determining levels of biodiesel in fuel blends—comparison with ASTM Method D7371 for FAME. Fuel 96:284–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dijs IJ, Van Der Windt E, Kaihola L, Van Der Borg K (2006) Quantitative determination by component in fuels C-14 analysis of the biological component in fuels. Radiocarbon 48:315–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Idoeta R, Pérez E, Herranz M, Legarda F (2014) Characteristic parameters in the measurement of C-14 of biobased diesel fuels by liquid scintillation. Appl Radiat Isot 93:110–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stojković I, Nikolov J, Tomić M et al (2017) Biogenic fraction determination in fuels—optimal parameters survey. Fuel 191:330–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krajcar Bronić I, Barešić J, Horvatinčić N, Sironić A (2016) Determination of biogenic component in liquid fuels by the 14C direct LSC method by using quenching properties of modern liquids for calibration. Radiat Phys Chem. doi: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2016.01.041 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Krištof R, Kožar Logar J (2013) Direct LSC method for measurements of biofuels in fuel. Talanta 111:183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Noakes JE, Cherkinsky A, Culp R (2010) Comparative radiocarbon analysis for artificial mixes of petroleum and biobased products. In: Cassette P (ed) Advance liquid scintillation spectrometry. LSC, Paris, pp 15–21Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tudyka K, Pawlyta J (2014) Biocomponent determination in vinegars with the help of 14C measured by liquid scintillation counting. Food Chem 145:614–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    ISO (2015) ISO 16620: plastics—biobased content. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Krištof R, Kožar Logar J (2010) Quenching parameter in the measurement of biodiesel by liquid scintillation counting. In: Cassette P (ed) Advance liquid scintillation spectrometry. LSC, Paris, pp 35–39Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krištof R, Kožar Logar J (2017) Liquid scintillation spectrometry as a tool of biofuel quantification. Front Bioenergy Biofuels. doi: 10.5772/65549 Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Makinen PO (1995) Handbook of liquid scintillation counting. Turku Institute of Technology, TurkuGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department for Low and Medium Energy PhysicsJožef Stefan InstituteLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations