Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

, Volume 314, Issue 2, pp 659–668 | Cite as

Determination of radionuclidic impurities in 99mTc eluate from 99Mo/99mTc generator for quality control

  • Xiaolin Hou


Technetium-99m is the principal radioisotope used in medical diagnostics; radionuclidic impurity is the major concern of its quality. This work presents a analytical method for sequential determination of all radionuclidic impurities listed in pharmacopoeia including gamma emitters, alpha emitters, 89Sr and 90Sr. Radioactive decay for removal of 99mTc, ion exchange and extraction chromatography for removal of 99Mo and 99Tc are effective for separation of interferences. Gamma spectrometry, LSC with alpha/beta discrimination, and Cherenkov counting using LSC are sensitive methods for measurement of the impurity radionuclides. The detection limits of this method are well meet the requirement of the quality control according to the limitation of the pharmacopoeia.


Radionuclidic impurity 99Mo/99mTc generator Ion exchange Extraction chromatography Liquid scintillation counting Alpha–beta discrimination Cherenkov counting 



The author acknowledges prof. Mikael Jensen and Dr. Sven P. Nielsen from DTU Nutech for their suggestions and discussion during the method development. Dr. Dannis Ringkjøbing Elema helped to obtain and calibrate radionuclide standards.


  1. 1.
    Zolle I (2007) Technetium-99m pharmaceuticals, preparation and quality control in nuclear medicine. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Takács S, Szűcs Z, Tárkányi F, Hermanne A, Sonck M (2003) Evaluation of proton induced reactions on 100Mo: new cross sections for production of 99mTc and 99Mo. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 257(1):195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Directorate for the Quality of Medicine and Healthcare, Council of Europe (2014) Sodium pertechnetate (99mTc) injection (fission), p 1090. European Pharmacopoeia-8.0, Strasbourg Cedex.
  4. 4.
    United States Pharmacopeial Convention (2005) Official monographs: USP 28, sodium pertechnetate Tc-99m injection, p 1861. United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 28 (NF) 23Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andrade WG, Lima FF (2009) Evaluation of the eluate quality of 99Mo-99mTc generator in Receife, Brazil, International Nuclear Atlantic Conference - INAC 2009, Rio de Janeiro, 27 September–2 OctoberGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    UAMS, College of Pharmacy, Nuclear pharmacy, Quality control procedure for free pertechnetate-99m.
  7. 7.
    Hammermaier A, Reich E, Bögl W (1986) Chemical, radiochemical and radionuclidic purity of eluates from different commerical fission 99Mo/99mTc generators. Eur J Nucl Med 12:41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sodd VJ, Fortman DL (1976) Analysis of the 89Sr and 90Sr content in eluates of fission produced 99Mo–99mTc generator. Health Phys 30(2):179–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Khan M, Jabbar T, Asif M, Anjum MI, Dilband M, Khan K, Jabbar A, Arshed W (2014) Radiostrontium separation from sodium molybdate solution and its measurement using LSA: an application to radiopharmaceutical analysis. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 299:577–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Braun H, Hoffmann P, Lieser KH (1981) Determination of alpha and pure beta emitting impurities in 99Mo/99mTc generator eluates. J Radioanal Chem 67(1):215–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Terlikowska T, Hainos D, Cassette P, Radosewski T (2000) Application of α/β discrimination in liquid scintillation counting for the purity control of 99mTc medical solutions. Appl Radiat Isot 52:627–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Johansson L, Mattsson S (1980) Plutonium in technetium-99m labeled pertechnetate for clinic use. J Nucl Med 21(11):1091–1094Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Directorate for the Quality of Medicine and Healthcare, Council of Europe (2014) Sodium molybdate (99Mo) solution (fission), p 1088. European Pharmacopoeia-8.0, Strasbourg CedexGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lehto J, Hou XL (2010) Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Nuclear TechnologiesTechnical University of DenmarkRoskildeDenmark

Personalised recommendations