Advertisement

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

, Volume 309, Issue 2, pp 563–573 | Cite as

Preferential removal of Sm by evaporation from Nd–Sm mixture and its application in direct burn-up determination of spent nuclear fuel

  • R. Sajimol
  • S. Bera
  • S. Nalini
  • N. Sivaraman
  • M. Joseph
  • T. Kumar
Article
  • 128 Downloads

Abstract

Rate of evaporation of Sm and Nd from their mixture was studied based on their ion intensities using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Because of the comparatively larger evaporation rate of Sm, it was found possible to get the isotopic composition of Nd (fission product monitor) free from isobaric interference of Sm isotopes. The decrease in ion intensity of Sm was studied as a function of time and filament temperature. Based on this study, an easy and time effective method for the determination of burn-up of spent nuclear fuel was examined and the results are compared with that obtained by the conventional method. Typical burn-up value obtained for a pressurized heavy water reactor fuel dissolver solution using the direct method by preferential evaporation of Sm is: 0.84 at.%, whereas the one obtained by the use of conventional method is 0.82 at.%. In both the cases, Nd was employed as the fission product monitor.

Keywords

Burn-up of spent nuclear fuel IDMS TIMS HPLC Nd Sm 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Dr. P. R. Vasudeva Rao and Dr. S. A. V. Sathyamurthy, former and present Directors of Chemistry Group, respectively of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research for their interest and encouragement in this work.

References

  1. 1.
    Standard test method for atom percent fission in uranium plutonium fuel (neodymium-148 method) (1996) designation, 321-96 annual of ASTM standards, 12.02Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    ASTM Standards (1974) Standard test method for atom percent fission in uranium and plutonium fuels (neodymium-148 method). E321-69. American Society for Testing Materials, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Saha B, Bagyalakshmi R, Periaswami G, Kavimandan VD, Chitambar SA, Jain HC, Mathews CK (1977) Determination of nuclear fuel burn-up using mass spectrometric techniques. BARC report-891Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rein JE, Rider BF (1962) TID-17385, burn-up determination of nuclear fuels, progress report. AEC research and development reportGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Balasubramanian R, Albert Raj DD, Nalini S, Saibaba M (2005) Mass spectrometric studies on irradiated (U, Pu) mixed carbide fuel of FBTR. Int J Nucl Energy Sci Technol 1:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Datta A, Sivaraman N, Srinivasan TG, Vasudeva Rao PR (2010) Rapid separation of lanthanides and actinides on small particle based reverse phase supports. Radiochim Acta 98:277–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jaison PG, Raut NM, Aggarwal SK (2006) Direct determination of lanthanides in simulated irradiated thoria fuels using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1122:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Joseph M, Karunasagar D, Saha B (1996) Development of high performance liquid chromatography for rapid determination of burn-up of nuclear fuels. IGC report-184Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crouch EAC (1977) Atomic data and nuclear data tables: fission product yields from neutron induced fission. Academic, New York, p 19Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sajimol R, Manoravi P, Bera S, Joseph M (2015) Effect of laser parameters on the measurement of U/Nd ratio using pulsed laser deposition followed by isotopic dilution mass spectrometry. Int J Mass Spectrom. doi: 10.1016/j.ijms.2015.07.003 Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heumann KG (1988) In: Adams F, Gijbels R, Van Greiken R (eds) Isotope dilution mass spectrometry in inorganic mass spectrometry. Wiley, New York, pp 301–376Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Albert Raj DD, Nalini S, Viswanathan R, Balasubramanian R (1999) Thermal ionization mass spectrometric study of U–Pu–O system. In: Proceedings of 8th international seminar on mass spectrometry held at IICT, Hyderabad, India, p 857Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A lanthanide lanthology, Part-II, M-Z, collection of notes concerning lanthanides and related elements (1994) Molycorp, Inc., Mountain PassGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kanno H (1971) Isotopic fractionation in a thermal ion source. Bull Chem Soc Jpn 44:1808–1812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Karlsruher’s chart of the nuclides (1974)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Habermann (1963) Vapor pressures of the rare earth metals. PhD Thesis, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Iowa, pp 64–68Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    White D, Walsh PN, Goldstein HW, Dever DF (1961) A mass spectrometric determination of the heats of sublimation. J Phys Chem 65:1404–1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Johnson RG, Hudson DE (1956) Mass spectrometric study of phase changes in aluminum, praseodymium and neodymium. J Chem Phys 25:917–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Savage WR, Hudson DE, Spedding FH (1959) Mass spectrometric study of heats of sublimation of rare earths. J Chem Phys 30:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Roboz J (1968) Introduction to mass spectrometry—instrumentation and techniques. Interscience Publishers, New York, pp 512–513Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemistry GroupIndira Gandhi Centre for Atomic ResearchKalpakkamIndia
  2. 2.Kalpakkam Reprocessing PlantBARC FacilitiesKalpakkamIndia

Personalised recommendations