Analysis of electron spin resonance spectra for the identification of complex ESR signals using irradiated standard marker materials

  • Hafiz Muhammad Shahbaz
  • Hyun-Kyu Kyung
  • Hyo-Young Kim
  • Joong-Ho Kwon


European standards EN1787 and EN13708 specify spectroscopic methods for the detection of irradiated food. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectral characteristics of radiation-induced radicals in standard marker materials (cellulose, glucose, fructose, and saccharose) were compared. Standard marker materials were gamma-irradiated (0 and 10 kGy) and mixed at different blending ratios (0–100 %) to evaluate their sensitivity upon ESR detection. Blended samples produced specific ESR signals which showed increased intensities by an increasing percentage of the irradiated component. However, detection was possible with 30 % irradiated component. The results could be helpful in interpreting complex ESR signals in plant materials containing cellulose and sugar materials.


ESR spectroscopy Irradiated standard marker Detection limit Cellulose radical Crystalline sugar radical 



This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Ministry of Education (MOE) (No. NRF-2013R1A1A4A03006993).


  1. 1.
    Jo D, Sanyal B, Lee JW, Kwon JH (2015) Thermoluminescence characterization of isolated minerals to identify oranges exposed to γ-ray, e-beam, and X-ray for quarantine applications. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 303:297–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Monique L, Samia A, Dominic D, Me´lanie T, Ste´phane S, Takala P, Khang VD (2013) Irradiation in combined treatments and food safety. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 296:1065–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shahbaz HM, Ahn JJ, Akram K, Kwon JH (2013) Screening methods for the identification of irradiated foods. Curr Res Agric Life Sci 31:1–10Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Akram K, Ahn JJ, Kwon JH (2012) Analytical methods for the identification of irradiated foods. In: Belotserkovsky E, Ostaltsov Z (eds) Ionizing radiation: applications, sources and biological effects. Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp 1–36Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    EN1786 (1997) Foodstuffs-detection of irradiated food containing bone: analysis by electron paramagnetic resonance. European Committee for Standardization (CEN), BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    EN13708 (2001) Foodstuffs-detection of irradiated food containing crystalline sugar by ESR spectroscopy. European Committee for Standardization (CEN), BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    EN1787 (2000) Foodstuffs-detection of irradiated food containing cellulose by ESR spectroscopy. European Committee for Standardization (CEN), BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Raffi J, Yordanov ND, Chabane S, Douifi L, Gancheva V, Ivanova S (2000) Identification of irradiation treatment of aromatic herbs, spices and fruits by electron paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence. Spectrochim Acta A56:409–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marchioni E (2009) ESR for food irradiation detection. In: Guỡjònsdóttir M, Belton PS, Webb GA (eds) Magnetic resonance in food science. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp 195–204Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Delincée H, Soika C (2002) Improvement of the ESR detection of irradiated food containing cellulose employing a simple extraction method. Radiat Phys Chem 63:437–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bayram G, Delincée H (2004) Identification of irradiated Turkish foodstuffs combining various physical detection methods. Food Control 15:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Esteves MP, Andrade ME, Empis J (1999) Detection of prior irradiation of dried fruits by electron spin resonance (ESR). Radiat Phys Chem 55:737–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ghelawi MA, Moore JS, Dodd NJF (1996) Use of ESR for the detection of irradiated dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Appl Radiat Isot 47:1641–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Malec-Czechowska K, Strzelczak G, Dancewicz AM, Stachowicz W, Delincée H (2003) Detection of irradiation treatment in dried mushrooms by photostimulated luminescence, EPR spectroscopy and thermoluminescence measurements. Eur Food Res Technol 216:57–65Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sudprasert W, Monthonwattana S, Vitittheeranon A (2012) Identification of irradiated rice noodles by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Radiat Meas 47:640–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shimoyama Y, Ukai M, Nakamura H (2006) ESR detection of wheat flour before and after irradiation. Spectrochim Acta A63:888–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee JH, Ahn JJ, Akram K, Kim GR, Kwon JH (2012) Comparison of ESR spectra of irradiated standard materials using different ESR spectrometers. J Korean Soc Appl Bi 55:407–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hafiz Muhammad Shahbaz
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hyun-Kyu Kyung
    • 1
  • Hyo-Young Kim
    • 1
  • Joong-Ho Kwon
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Food Science and BiotechnologyKyungpook National UniversityDaeguSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyYonsei UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations