Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

, Volume 292, Issue 3, pp 1025–1033 | Cite as

Synthesis of O-[2-[18F]fluoro-3-(2-nitro-1H-imidazole-1-yl)propyl]tyrosine ([18F]FNT]) as a new class of tracer for imaging hypoxia

  • Noeen Malik
  • Xian Lin
  • Dirk Löffler
  • Bin Shen
  • Christoph Solbach
  • Gerald Reischl
  • Wolfgang Voelter
  • Hans-Jürgen Machulla


For detection of hypoxic tumor tissue, all radiotracers synthesized until now, are based on the concept that cellular uptake is being controlled by diffusion. As a new approach, we chose the concept to have the tracer hypothetically transported into the cells by well known carrier systems like the amino acid transporters. For this purpose, radiosynthesis of O-[2-[18F]fluoro-3-(2-nitro-1H-imidazole-1yl)propyl]tyrosine ([18F]FNT]) was carried out from methyl 2-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-3-(4-3-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-2-(tosyloxy)propoxy) phenyl)propanoate via no-carrier-added nucleophilic aliphatic substitution. After labelling, 81 ± 0.9% of labelled intermediate i.e. methyl 2-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-3-(4-(2-[18F]fluoro-3-(2-nitro-1H-imidazole-1-yl)propoxy) phenyl)propanoate was obtained at 140 °C. At the end of radiosynthesis, [18F]FNT was obtained in an overall radiochemical yield of 40 ± 0.9% (not decay corrected) within 90 min in a radiochemical purity of >98% in a formulation ready for application in the clinical studies for PET imaging of hypoxia.


Radiofluorinations p-tyrosine with 2-nitroimidazole Hypoxia imaging 



The project was supported by funding of Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) with the grant no. MA 1096/8-1. We also gratefully acknowledge the support by DAAD-HEC (Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst-Higher Education Commission, Pakistan; Reference No. 425, Codenumber A/06/19221) with a research grant.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noeen Malik
    • 1
  • Xian Lin
    • 1
  • Dirk Löffler
    • 2
  • Bin Shen
    • 3
  • Christoph Solbach
    • 1
  • Gerald Reischl
    • 4
  • Wolfgang Voelter
    • 5
  • Hans-Jürgen Machulla
    • 1
  1. 1.Klinik für Nuklear MedizinUniversitäts-Klinikum, Ulm UniversitätUlmGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Radiopharmaceutical SciencesEidgenössische Technische HochschuleZürichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyStanford University Medical CenterStanfordUSA
  4. 4.Department for Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, University HospitalEberhard Karls UniversityTübingenGermany
  5. 5.Interfacultary Institute for BiochemistryEberhard Karls UniversityTübingenGermany

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