Elemental analysis of topaz from northern areas of Pakistan and assessment of induced radioactivity level after neutron irradiation for color induction
- 103 Downloads
To study the impurity elements, which render color-induced topaz long lived radionuclides, three samples of topaz, from three different cities of the Northern Pakistan (Baltistan, Gilgit and Mardan) were analyzed using k 0 instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0-INAA). The samples were irradiated in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) and PARR-2 at Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad. The method was validated by analyzing IAEA-S7 reference material. In three samples a total of 22 trace level impurity elements were quantified. Among impurities, 10 elements including As, Ce, Ga, Ge, La, Na, Sb, Sc, U and Zn were common in topaz of all the three places. The storage time has been calculated for each sample required to bring the induced radioactivity down to permissible level given by US National Regulatory Commission.
KeywordsTopaz Gemstone k0-INAA Trace elements
The authors are grateful for the help of personnel from Material Laboratory, PIEAS. Yasir Anwar and Sajid Iqbal are also acknowledged for their help during experimentation.
- 1.Manutchehr-Danai M (ed) (2009) Dictionary of gems, gemology, 3rd edn. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
- 2.Cardarelli F (2008) Materials handbook, 2nd edn. Springer, London, UKGoogle Scholar
- 6.Ashbaugh CE (1992) Gems Gemol 28:104Google Scholar
- 7.Ashbaugh CE (1991) Radioact Radiochem 2:42Google Scholar
- 18.IAEA Analytical Quality Control Services (2004) Reference materials catalogue, 2004–2005, 1st edn. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, Jan 2004, p 35Google Scholar
- 19.USNRC regulations (2010) http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/cfr/part030/part030-0070.html. Accessed June 2010