Advertisement

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

, Volume 281, Issue 2, pp 231–236 | Cite as

Parmelia sulcata lichen transplants positioning towards wind direction (Part II): element concentrations and relationships with atmospheric element deposition

  • A. P. Marques
  • M. C. Freitas
  • H. Th. Wolterbeek
  • T. Verburg
Article

Abstract

Parmelia sulcata transplants were positioned in three different exposure systems allowing three different influxes: free influx (Fi), horizontal influx (Hi) and vertical influx (Vi). Results suggest the absence of any wind-directional effects on element accumulation within Fi and Hi systems, but underline that differences in response may be observed in relation with the transplant set-up systems. The Vi system generally shows poor results, while the performance of the Hi and Fi systems depends on the element involved. Results were obtained for a specific lichen, and therefore are not necessarily representative for other lichens.

Keywords

Lichen transplants Trace elements Wind influxes Transplant hanging systems 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. M. Reis, O. R. Oliveira and P.·C. Chaves for assistance in PIXE analysis, and Dr. O. M. Steinebach for ICP-OES analysis.

References

  1. 1.
    Mulgrew, A., Williams, P.: Biomonitoring of Air Quality Using Plants. WHO Collaborating Centre for Air Quality Management and Air Pollution Control, Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin, Germany (2000)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bargagli, R.: In Trace Elements in Terrestrial Plants: An Ecophysiological Approach to Biomonitoring and Biorecovery, p. 179. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany (1998)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Freitas, M.C., Reis, M.A., Alves, L.C., Wolterbeek, H.Th.: Nuclear analytical techniques in atmospheric trace element studies in Portugal. In: Friese, K., Markert, B. (eds.) Trace Elements—Their Distribution and Effects in the Environment, pp. 187–213. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Freitas, M.C., Catarino, F.M., Branquinho, C., Águas, C.: Preparation of a lichen reference material. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 169, 47–55 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Almeida, S.M.: Composição Elementar do Aerossol Atmosférico em Zona Urbano-Industrial. PhD thesis, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    De Corte, F.: The k 0-standardization method: a move to the optimisation of neutron activation analysis. PhD thesis, Gent University (1987)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Johansson, S.A.E., Campbell, J.L., Malmqvist, K.G.: Particle Induced X-ray Emission Spectrometry (PIXE) in Chemical Analysis. Wiley, UK (1995)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Van Espen, P.: AXIL V3.0 Computer Code Manual (1990)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reis, M.A., Alves, L.C.: DATTPIXE—a computer package for TTPIXE data analysis. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 68, 300–304 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Weiss, N.A.: Introductory Statistics. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc, Boston, MA, USA (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    ISO 13528:2005: Statistical methods for use in proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparisons by ISO/TC, 69/SC 6 N459 (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bode, P.: Instrumental and organisational aspects of a neutron activation analysis laboratory. PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands (1996)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Coquery, M., Carvalho, F.P., Azemard, S., Horvat, M.: The IAEA worldwide intercomparison exercises 1990–1997): determination of trace elements in marine sediments and biological samples. Sci. Total Environ. 237/238, 501–508 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mellado, J., Llauradó, M., Rauret, G.: Determination of actinides and stroncium in fish samples by extraction chromatography. Anal. Chim. Acta 458, 367–374 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marques, A.P., Freitas, M.C., Reis, M.A., Wolterbeek, H.Th., Verburg, T.V., De Goeij, J.J.M.: Lichen-transplant biomonitoring in the assessment of dispersion of atmospheric trace-element pollutants: effects of orientation towards the wind direction. J. Atmos. Chem. 49, 211–222 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ayrault, S., Clochiatti, R., Carrot, F., Daudin, L., Bennett, J.: Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants. Sci. Total Environ. 372, 717–727 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marques, A.P.: Positional responses in lichen transplant biomonitoring of trace element air pollution. PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. P. Marques
    • 1
  • M. C. Freitas
    • 1
  • H. Th. Wolterbeek
    • 2
  • T. Verburg
    • 2
  1. 1.Reactor DepartmentITN-Technological and Nuclear InstituteSacavémPortugal
  2. 2.Department R3 (Radiation, Radionuclides & Reactors), Section Radiation and Isotopes for Health (RIH), Faculty of Applied SciencesDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations