For the determination of arsenic compounds in terrestrial plant samples, a crucial step is the efficient extraction of arsenic from the solid plant matrix. However, the use of methanol-water extraction often resulted in low extraction efficiencies of less than 50%. In this study, eight solid-liquid extraction procedures (mainly based on mechanical mixing and sonication) were evaluated for the recovery of arsenic species from a submerged freshwater plant, coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum), collected in Moira River, Ontario, Canada. Speciation of As in the extracts was carried out with both anion-, and cation-exchange HPLC with sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (SF-ICP-MS) detection. The results obtained depended critically on the extraction solvents used in different extraction procedures. Extraction with methanol-water led only to 9%–44% recoveries of As. A high extraction yield (approximately 82%) was obtained by water extraction. Alkaline hydrolysis also resulted in high extraction efficiencies (86%–98%), but severe oxidation of As(III) to As(V) was observed. A protease enzymatic extraction led to a recovery of 48%. Approximately 0.5% of the total As in the plant sample was lipid-soluble. It was found that the extraction of inorganic arsenic species was suppressed by the presence of methanol in the extraction solvents, while high content of methanol in the extraction solvents was effective for the extraction of organic arsenic species. Therefore, it is recommended to perform the extraction both with water alone and with methanol-water (9+1, v/v), in order to obtain the complete As species profile in terrestrial plants.
Arsenic Arsenic Species TMAO Cellulose Nitrate Filter Arsenic Compound
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