Solution behavior and associating structures of a salt-tolerant tetra-polymer containing an allyl-capped macromonomer
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A novel salt-tolerant macromonomer, allyl-capped octylphenoxy poly(ethylene oxide) (AOP) with the degree of polymerization equal to 20, was synthesized, and then a novel acrylamide(AM)-based tetra-polymer (PSAA) containing sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulphonate (NaAMPS), AOP, and vinyl biphenyl (VP) was synthesized by aqueous free-radical copolymerization. Static light scattering measurement shows that the weight-average molecular weight of PSAA is only 6.75 × 106 g/mol, but the z-average radius of gyration in 30 g/L NaCl is up to 189 nm. The apparent viscosities of aqueous PSAA solutions are very low at all polymer concentrations. However, for PSAA in 70 g/L NaCl, the critical association concentration (C p *) decreases from 0.4 g/L in water to 0.3 g/L, and the apparent viscosity increases sharply with an increase in polymer concentration and is higher surprisingly than that in water above C p *. The influences of NaCl and CaCl2 concentrations on solution viscosities of PSAA were measured, and the brine solutions display the strong salt-thickening effect in a wide range of salt concentration. This is different from hydrophobically associating polymers reported in the literature. Moreover, the thickening mechanisms of PSAA in water and brine solutions were investigated by a fluorescent probe and atomic force microscope (AFM).
KeywordsAcrylamide Macromonomer Static light scattering Atomic force microscope Viscosity
We acknowledge the financial supports of the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (contract grant number: 20135122110017) and Freedom Innovation Foundations of State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (contract grant number: 2014–192).
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