Advertisement

Journal of Polymer Research

, 20:249 | Cite as

Nano-Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)/Polystyrene (PS) core-shell nanoparticle: It’s effect on physical and mechanical properties of high impact polystyrene (HIPS)

  • Aniruddha Chatterjee
  • Satyendra Mishra
Original Paper

Abstract

Rheological, thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of core-shell [Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)/Polystyrene (PS)]/High impact polystyrene (HIPS) as well as bare nano-CaCO3/HIPS nanocomposites with different wt% loading were investigated in this paper. All composites were prepared individually by incorporating nano-CaCO3/PS hybrid nanoparticles and bare nano-CaCO3 with 0.10–5.0 wt% loading on Brabender Plastograph. It was shown from the experimental results that rheological, thermal, mechanical and morphological properties were improved as hybrid nano-CaCO3/PS particles reinforced in HIPS matrix. The interaction between nano-CaCO3 particles and HIPS matrix was significantly improved when the nano-CaCO3 nanoparticles were grafted with PS. FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscope) and AFM (atomic force microscope) images showed a perfect dispersion of nano-CaCO3 particles in polypropylene (PP) matrix.

Keywords

Core-shell nanoparticles High impact polystyrene (HIPS) Thermal properties Rheological properties Mechanical properties 

Notes

Acknowledgement

Authors are thankful to University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi for providing financial support [project file No: 40–10/2011(SR), dated- July 14, 2011] to carry out this research work.

References

  1. 1.
    Li DJ, Jones GL, Dunlap JR, Hua FJ, Zhao B (2006) Thermosensitive Hairy Hybrid Nanoparticles Synthesized by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. Langmuir 22:3344–3351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nishizawa N, Nishimura J, Saitoh H, Fujiki K, Tsubokawa N (2005) Grafting of branched polymers onto nano-sized silica surface: Postgrafting of polymers with pendant isocyanate groups of polymer chain grafted onto nano-sized silica surface. Progress in Organic Coatings 53:306–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hong CY, Li X, Pan CY (2007) Grafting polymer nanoshell onto the exterior surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles via surface reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. European Polymer Journal 43:4114–4122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen LX, Rajh T, Wang Z, Thurnauer MC (1998) XAFS Studies of Surface Structures of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Photocatalytic Reduction of Metal Ions. Journal of Physical Chemistry 101:10688–10697Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ringward SC, Pemberton JE (2000) Adsorption interactions of aromatics and heteroaromatics with hydrated and dehydrated silica surfaces by Raman and FTIR spectroscopies. Environmental Science & Technology 34:259–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rajh T, Tiede DM, Thurnauer MC (1996) Surface modification of TiO2 nanoparticles with bidentate ligands studied by EPR spectroscopy. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 207:815–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dong Q, Su H, Cao W, Han J, Zhang D, Guo Q (2008) Biogenic synthesis of hierarchical hybrid nanocomposites and patterning of silver nanoparticles. Materials Chemistry and Physics 110:160–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bawden MJ, Turner SR (1988) Electronic and Pho- tonic Applications of Polymers, Advances in Chemistry Series, vol 218. ACS, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kato K, Uchida E, Kang ET, Uyama Y, Zkada Y (2003) Polymer surface with graft chains. Progress in Polymer Science 28:209–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mishra S, Sonawane SH, Singh RP, Patil K, Bendale A (2004) Effect of nano Mg(OH)2 on Mechanical and Flame Retarding Properties of Polypropylene Composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 94:116–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mishra S, Badgujar N, Gurav K, Patil D, Sonawane SH (2005) Comparative Study on Mechanical and Flame Retarding Properties of Polybutadiene Rubber Filled with Nanoparticles and Fly Ash. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 96:6–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mishra S, Shimpi NG (2005) Mechanical and Flame retarding Properties of SBR Filled with Nano CaCO3 as filler and Linseed oil as Extender. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 98:2563–2571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Galperin A, Margel S (2007) Synthesis and characterization of radiopaque magnetic core-shell nanoparticles for X-ray imaging applications. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials 83B:490–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hall SR, Davis SA, Mann S (2000) Cocondensation of Organosilica Hybrid Shells on Nanoparticle Templates: A Direct Synthetic Route to Functionalized Core − Shell Colloids. Langmuir 16:1454–1456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mishra S, Sonawane SH, Mukherji A, Mrthutinjaya HC (2006) Effect of nano size CaSO4 and Ca3 (PO4)2 particles on rheological behavior of PP and its simulation with mathematical model. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 100:4190–4196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mishra S, Shimpi NG (2007) Effect of Variation in Wt percent of Loading and Reduction in Nano Sizes of CaSO4 on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR). Journal of Applied Polymer Science 104:2018–2026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mishra S, Shimpi NG, Patil UD (2007) Effect of Nano CaCO3 on thermal properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR). Journal of Polymer Research 14:449–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mishra S, Shimpi NG, Sonawane SS (2009) Influence of Organo- Montomorillonite on Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Polyamide Nanocomposites. Applied Clay Science 46:222–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shimpi NG, Verma J, Mishra S (2010) Dispersion of Nano CaCO3 on PVC and It’s Influence on Mechanical and Thermal Properties. Journal of Composite Material 44:211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mishra S, Shimpi NG (2010) Synthesis of nanoparticles and its effect on properties of elastomeric nanocomposites. Journal of Nanoparticles Research 12:2093–2099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shimpi NG, Verma J, Mishra S (2009) Preparation, Characterization and Properties of Poly(vinyl chloride)/CaSO4 Nanocomposites. Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering 48:997–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mishra S, Shimpi NG (2011) Studies on effect of improved d-spacing of montomorillonite on properties of poly(vinyl chloride) nanocomposites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 119:148–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mishra S, Shimpi NG, Mali AD (2012) Investigation of Photo-oxidative effect on morphology and degradation of mechanical and physical properties of nano CaCO3 silicone rubber composites. Polymer for Advanced Technology 23:236–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mishra S, Shimpi NG, Mali AD (2011) Influence of stearic acid treated nano CaCO3 filler on properties of silicone nanocomposites. Journal Polymer Research 18:1715–1724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mishra S, Shimpi NG, Mali AD (2012) Surface modification of montomorillonite (MMT) using column chromatography technique and its application in silicone rubber nanocomposites. Macromolecular Research 20:44–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bourgeat-Lami E, Lang J (2000) Silica-polystyrene composite particles. Macromolecular Symposium 151:377–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ding X, Zhao J, Liu Y, Zhang H, Wang Z (2004) Silica nanoparticles encapsulated by polystyrene via surface grafting and in situ emulsion polymerization. Materials Letter 58:3126–3130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Janssen EAWG, Herk AM, German AL (1993) Polymer Preprint (American Chemical Society, Division Polymer Chemistry) 34:532Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yang Y, Kong XZ, Kan CY, Sun CG (1999) Encapsulation of calcium carbonate by styrene polymerization. Polymer for Advanced Technology 10:54–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bechthold N, Tiarks F, Willert M, Landfester K, Antonietti M (2000) Miniemulsion polymerization: applications and new materials. Macromolecular Symposium 151:549–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yu J, Yu J, Guo ZX, Gao YF (2001) Preparation of CaCO3/Polystyrene Inorganic/Organic Composite Nanoparticles. Macromolecular Rapid Communication 22:1261–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ping H, Shigan C, Jianjun Y, Guohong L, Tingting Y, Shiyuan C (2012) Preparation of Silica/Polymer Core-Shell Hybrid Particles and Their Hollow Structures. Progress in Chemistry 24:31–38Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tang E, Liu H, Sun L, Zheng E, Cheng G (2007) Fabrication of zinc oxide/poly(styrene) grafted nanocomposite latex and its dispersion. European Polymer Journal 43:4210–4218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wu W, Zhang X, Chen J, Shen S (2008) Synthesis of nano-CaCo3 composite particles and their application. Journal of University Science and Technology Beijing 15:67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mishra S, Chatterjee A (2011) Effect of nano-polystyrene (nPS) on thermal, rheological, and mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP). Polymer for Advanced Technology 22:1547–1554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mishra S, Chatterjee A (2010) Particle Size, Morphology and Thermal Properties of Polystyrene Nanoparticles in Microemulsion Process. Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering 49:791–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mishra S, Chatterjee A (2011) Novel synthesis of polymer and copolymer nanoparticles by atomized microemulsion technique and its characterization. Polymer for Advanced Technology 22:1593–1601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chatterjee A, Mishra S (2012) Novel synthesis of crystalline polystyrene nanoparticles (nPS) by monomer atomization in microemulsion and their effect on thermal, rheological, and mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP). Macromolecular Research 20:780–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mishra S, Chatterjee A, Rana VK (2011) Polymer nanoparticles: their effect on rheological, thermal, and mechanical properties of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE). Polymer for Advanced Technology 22:1802–1811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mishra S, Chatterjee A, Singh RP (2011) Novel synthesis of nano–calcium carbonate (CaCO3)/polystyrene (PS) core–shell nanoparticles by atomized microemulsion technique and its effect on properties of polypropylene (PP) composites. Polymer for Advanced Technology 22:2571–2582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chatterjee A, Mishra S (2013) Rheological, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Nano-Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)/Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) [PMMA] Core-Shell Nanoparticles Reinforced Polypropylene (PP) Composites. Macromolecular Research 21:474–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chatterjee A, Mishra S (2012) Novel synthesis with an atomized microemulsion technique and characterization of nano-calcium carbonate (CaCO3)/poly(methyl methacrylate) core-shell nanoparticles. Particuology. doi: 10.1016/j.partic.2012.11.005 Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Parres F, Balart R, Lopez J, Garcia D (2008) Changes in the mechanical and thermal properties of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) in the presence of low polypropylene (PP) contents. Journal of Material Science 43:3203–3209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yilmaz T, Sahin T, Sinmazcelik T (2009) Fracture characteristics of high impact polystyrene under impact fatigue loadings. Journal of Material Science 44:4308–4314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rostamiyan Y, Fereidoon AB, Mashhadzadeh AH, Khalili MA (2013) Augmenting epoxy toughness by combination of both thermoplastic and nanolayered materials and using artificial intelligence techniques for modeling and optimization. Journal of Polymer Research 20:135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wang Z, Li G, Peng H, Zhang Z (2005) Study on novel antibacterial high-impact polystyrene/TiO2 nanocomposites. Journal of Material Science 40:6433–6438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yang J, Huang L, Li L, Zhang Y, Chen F, Zhong M (2013) Preparation of polystyrene/graphene oxide composites and their supercritical carbon dioxide foaming. Journal of Polymer Research 20:173–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kong Q, Lv R, Zhang S (2008) Flame retardant and the degradation mechanism of high impact polystyrene/Fe-montmorillonite nanocomposites. Journal of Polymer Research 15:453–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sahin T, Sinmazcelik T, Arici A (2004) Investigation about the effect of previous impacts on the impact behavior of high impact polystyrene (HIPS). Journal of Material Science 39:2543–2546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gong XH, Tang CY, Hu H, Hu HC, Zhou XP, Xie XL (2004) Improved mechanical properties of HIPS/hydroxyapatite composites by surface modification of hydroxyapatite via in-situ polymerization of styrene. Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine 15:1141–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mishra, S., Kulkarni, R. D., Patil, U. D. & Ghosh, N. (2009) Solution Spray Process for Preparation of Inorganic Nanosized Particles Using precipitation Technique in Micellar Mode, Indian Patent No. 235186,Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kulkarni RD, Patil UD, Ghosh N, Mishra S (2009) Surfactant assisted soluition spray synthesis of stabilized prusine blue and red oxide for preparation of nanolatex composites. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology 27:1478–1483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wang K, Chen Y, Zhang Y (2009) Effects of reactive compatibilizer on the core–shell structured modifiers toughening of poly(trimethylene terephthalate). Polymer 50:1483–1490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Goodrich JE, Porte RS (1967) A Rheological Interpretation of Torque-Rheometer Data. Polymer Engineering and Science 1:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Marquez A, Quijano J, Gaulin M (1996) A calibration Technique to Evaluate the Power-Law Parameters of Polymer Melts Using a Torque-Rheometer. Polymer Engineering and Science 36:2556–2563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lee YS, Lee WK, Cho SG, Kima I, Ha CS (2007) Quantitative analysis of unknown compositions in ternary polymer blends: A model study on NR/SBR/BR system. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 78:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rovere J, Correa CA, Grassi VG, Pizzol MFD (2008) Role of the rubber particle and polybutadiene cis content on the toughness of high impact polystyrene. Journal of Material Science 43:952–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sheng Y, Zhao J, Zhou B, Ding X, Deng Y, Wang Z (2006) In situ preparation of CaCO3/polystyrene composite nanoparticles. Materials Letter 60:3248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gilman, J. W., Kashiagi, T., In: Pinnavaia, T. J. & Beall, G. W. (2000), Polymer-clay nanocomposites, Wiley, New York, p 193.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chen X, Li C, Xu S, Zang L, Shao W, Du HL (2006) Interfacial adhesion and mechanical properties of PMMA-coated CaCO3 nanoparticle reinforced PVC composites. China Particuology 4:25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Shang SW, Williams JW, Soderholm KJM (1994) How the work of adhesion affects the mechanical-properties of silica-filled polymer composites. Journal of Material Science 29:2406–2416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Song M, Xia HS, Yao KJ, Hourston DJ (2005) A study on phase morphology and surface properties of polyurethane/organoclay nanocomposite. European Polymer Journal 41:259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University Institute of Chemical Technology, North Maharashtra UniversityJalgaonIndia

Personalised recommendations