Journal of Polymer Research

, 19:9945 | Cite as

Chemical modifications and characteristic changes in bacterial cellulose treated with different media

  • Jian Wu
  • Yudong Zheng
  • Zhou Yang
  • Qiuyan Cui
  • Qiaoli Wang
  • Shuang Gao
  • Xun Ding
Original Paper


Bacterial cellulose membranes have attracted a great deal of attention as novel biomedical materials. In this paper, bacterial cellulose was treated with acidic, alkaline, and redox solutions to investigate the subsequent changes in the characteristics of the cellulose. The chemical structure, crystalline state, water-holding capacity, and micromorphology of each modified BC were characterized by FTIR, SEM, and XRD. After these treatments, the intermolecular or intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the BC were broken and the water bound to the BC was released from the BC hydrogel. During these processes, the crystallinity and surface morphology of the BC were also modified. Meanwhile, the crystalline form of the BC changed from cellulose I to II in alkaline medium. In particular, the BC nanofiber hydrogel broke into floccules when treated with highly concentrated NaOH solution at a temperature of −5 °C, but these floccules congregated into a bulk state again after removing the NaOH.


Bacterial cellulose Fibers Structure Modification Morphology 



This work was financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China projects (grant nos. 50773004 and 51073024), the Science and Technology Plan Project of Beijing (no. Z111103066611005) and the Royal Society–NSFC International Joint Project (grant no. 5111130207).


  1. 1.
    Dubey V, Saxena C, Singh L, Ramana KV, Chauhan RS (2002) Sep Purif Technol 27:163–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fumihiro Y, Naoto T, Watanabe K (1997) Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 61:219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kacurakova M, Smith AC, Gidley MJ, Wilson RH (2002) Carbohydr Res 337:1145–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wan YZ, Huang Y, Yuan CD, Raman S, Zhu Y, Jiang HJ (2007) Mater Sci Eng C 27:855–864Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hu W, Chen S, Li X, Shi S, Shen W, Zhang X (2009) Mater Sci Eng C 29:1216–1219Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rambo CR, Recouvreux DOS, Carminatti CA, Pitlovanciv AK, Antnio RV, Porto LM (2002) Mater Sci Eng C 28:549–554Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Czaja W, Krystynowicz A, Bielecki S, Brown JRM (2006) Biomaterials 27:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Klemm DO, Udhardt URE, Schumann DA, Marsch SE (2004) Abstr Pap Am Chem Soc 227:U303–U306Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sokolnicki AM, Fisher RJ, Harrah TP, Kaplan DL (2006) J Membrane Sci 272:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Svensson A, Nicklasson E, Harrah T, Panilaitis B, Kaplan DL, Brittberg M (2005) Biomaterials 26:419–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen YM, Xi TF, Zheng YD, Guo TT, Hou JQ, Wan YZ (2009) J Bioact Compat Polym 24:137–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kim J, Cai ZJ, Lee HS, Choi GS, Lee DH, Jo C (2011) J Polym Res 18(4):1022–9760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Czaja WK, Young DJ, Kawecki M, Brown RM Jr (2007) Biomacromolecules 8:11–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Datta S, Grant DJW (2004) Nat Rev Drug Discov 3:42–57Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    George J, Ramana KV, Sabapathy SN, Jagannath JH, Bawa AS (2002) Int J Biol Macromol 37:189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu Sixin, Li Congfa (2007) Bacterial cellulose. China Agricultural University Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Segal L, Creely JJ, Martin AE Jr, Conrad CM (1959) Text Res J 29(10):786–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wei Z, HongZhang C, RunYu M (2007) J Beijing University Chem Tech 34:138–141Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bragg WL (1913) Proc Camb Philos Soc 17:43–57Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang Y, Zhao Y, Deng Y (2008) Carbohydr Polym 72:178–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang Y (2008) Cellulose fiber dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution at low temperature: dissolution kinetics and solubility improvement (Ph.D. thesis). Georgia Institute of Technology, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cheng YM (2009) Study of the degradation and biosafety evaluation of nHA/BC used for tissue engineering scaffold materials (Ph.D. thesis). University of Science and Technology, Beijing, pp 51–52Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rogovin ZA, Shorygin НН (1956) In: Cellulose and concomitant chemistry (transl. by Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences). Science Press, Beijing, pp 115–116Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations