Different parental strategies in education are bound to produce various effects: not all of these strategies are equally productive in their application. At the same time, the impact of parental involvement in general education on their children’s extracurricular activities has not been thoroughly studied. This article attempts to fill this gap by analyzing the relationship between strategies of parental involvement in education and adolescents’ participation in extracurricular activities. The data source for this study were parents whose children attend general education institutions (N = 3,887; Mage of children = 12.4, SD = 3.1; 55.6% female). A latent class analysis identified three categories of parental participation in education: “Intrusive”, “Supervisory”, and “Detached”. Each category showed different patterns of involvement from primary to high school, distinguished by the type of extracurricular participation encouraged by parents. In primary school, children of “Intrusive” parents attended the highest number of extracurricular activities. In secondary school, they attended fewer activities compared to the children of “Supervisory” parents. Children of “Supervisory” parents often chose to participate in activities on their own, and continued to attend the selected activity, or change activity on their own initiative. The children of “Detached” parents were less involved in extracurricular activities in primary school. In some cases, they chose their own extracurricular activities as they grew older. The study demonstrates that parental involvement is related to adolescents’ participation in extracurricular activities. Parents’ strategies should be considered instrumental as they produce a variety of different outcomes, depending upon the adolescents’ age and type of activities. The identified strategies may serve as a basis for recommendations for development of parental competencies, consultations, and family education.
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The authors would like to thank Tatyana Mertsalova, a leading expert at Pinsky Centre of General and Extracurricular Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation for advice on data analysis and interpretation of results.
M.G. conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination and drafted the manuscript; S.K., D.G. and D.D. participated in the design and interpretation of the data; M.G., D.D., and S.K. participated in the design and coordination of the study and performed the measurement; M.G., D.G. and D.D. participated in the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis; S.K. and D.G. conceived of the study, and participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The article was prepared within the framework of the HSE University Basic Research Program.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All participants were informed about the study procedure, and passive consent was obtained from the parents of the adolescents.
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Goshin, M., Dubrov, D., Kosaretsky, S. et al. The Strategies of Parental Involvement in Adolescents’ Education and Extracurricular Activities. J Youth Adolescence (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-021-01399-y
- Parental involvement in education
- Extracurricular activities
- Latent class analysis
- Parental strategies