Disentangling the Relations between Social Identity and Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Competitive Youth Sport
The social identities formed through membership on extracurricular activity groups may contribute to the frequency with which youth engage in prosocial and antisocial behavior. However, researchers have yet to disentangle the individual- and group-level processes social identification effects operate through; sex and perceived norms may also moderate such effects. Thus, we investigated the hierarchical and conditional relations between three dimensions of social identity (i.e., ingroup ties, cognitive centrality, ingroup affect) and prosocial and antisocial behavior in youth ice hockey players (N = 376; 33% female). Multilevel analyses demonstrated antisocial teammate and opponent behavior were predicted by cognitive centrality at the team level. Further, prosocial teammate behavior was predicted by cognitive centrality and ingroup ties at the individual-level. Also, perceived norms for prosocial teammate behavior moderated the relations between ingroup ties, cognitive centrality, and ingroup affect and prosocial teammate behaviour. Finally, sex moderated the relations between cognitive centrality/ingroup affect and antisocial opponent behavior. This work demonstrates the multilevel and conditional nature of how social identity dimensions relate to youth prosocial and antisocial behavior.
KeywordsGroup dynamics Team identification Personal development Physical activity
This research was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (#435-2016-0591, #43502014-0038). The authors wish to thank all the participating hockey associations, coaches, teams, and young athletes that participated in the study.
M.W.B. conceptualized and designed the study, supervised overall data acquisition, conducted the analysis, provided interpretation of findings, and led the writing of the manuscript; I.D.B. conceptualized and designed the study, conducted the data analysis, provided interpretation of the findings, and critically revised the manuscript; A.J.B. contributed to the conceptualization and design of the study, conducted the data analysis, provided interpretation of the findings, and drafted and critically revised parts of the manuscript; K.S.W. contributed to the conceptualization and design of the study, conducted the data analysis, provided interpretation of the findings, and critically revised the manuscript; Z.R. supervised data acquisition, participated in drafting and revising parts of the manuscript; J.T. contributed to the conceptualization and design, supervised data acquisition, and critically revised the manuscript; J.S. contributed to the data collection, participated in drafting and revising parts of the manuscript; J.C. conceptualized and designed the study, contributed to data analysis and interpretation of findings, and critically revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
The institutional review board at Nipissing University has approved this study.
Informed consent was obtained from the parents of the youth athlete participants. All youth athletes gave active assent prior to administration of the survey.
- Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of social and clinical psychology, 4(3), 359–373. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1918.104.22.1689.
- Bandura, A. (1999). Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Personality and social psychology review, 3(3), 193–209. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0303_3.
- Boardley, I. D., & Kavussanu, M. (2010). Effects of goal orientation and perceived value of toughness on antisocial behavior in soccer: the mediating role of moral disengagement. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32(2), 176–192. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.32.2.176.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bruner, M. W., Balish, S. M., Forrest, C., Brown, S., Webber, K., Gray, E., McGuckin, M., Keats, M. R., Rehman, L. & Shields, C. A. (2017). Ties that bond: youth sport as a vehicle for social identity and positive youth development. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 88(2), 209–214. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2017.1296100.
- Bruner, M. W., Boardley, I., Forrest, C., Buckham, S., Root, Z., Allen, V., & Côté, J. (2017). Examining social identity and intrateam moral behaviours in competitive youth ice hockey using stimulated recall. Journal of Sport Sciences., 35(20), 1963–1974. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1243797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bruner, M. W., Dunlop, W., & Beauchamp, M. R. (2014). A social identity perspective on group processes in sport and exercise. In M. R. Beauchamp & M. A. Eys (Ed.), Group dynamics in exercise and sport psychology (2nd ed.). (pp. 38–52). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M., & Little, T. D. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: A meta‐analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child development, 79(5), 1185–1229. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01184.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carlo, G., Mestre, M. V., McGinley, M. M., Tur-Porcar, A., Samper, P., & Opal, D. (2014). The protective role of prosocial behaviors on antisocial behaviors: The mediating effects of deviant peer affiliation. Journal of Adolescence, 37(4), 359–366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.02.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1998). Aggression and antisocial behavior. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 779–862). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Eagly, A. H. (2009). The his and hers of prosocial behavior: an examination of the social psychology of gender. American Psychologist, 64(8), 644. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.64.8.644.
- Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., Guthrie, I. K., Murphy, B. C., & Shepard, S. A. (2005). Age changes in prosocial responding and moral reasoning in adolescence and early adulthood. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15(3), 235–260. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2005.00095.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1998). Prosocial development. In N. Eisenberg & W. Damon (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social emotional and personality development. 5th edn. (pp. 701–778). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2006). Prosocial development. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional and personality development (pp. 646–718). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society. 2d edn., rev. and enl.. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
- Glomb, T. M., Richman, W. L., Hulin, C. L., Drasgow, F., Schneider, K. T., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1997). Ambient sexual harassment: An integrated model of antecedents and consequences. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 71(3), 309–328. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1997.2741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Goette, L., Huffman, D., & Meier, S. (2012). The impact of social ties on group interactions: evidence from minimal groups and randomly assigned real groups. American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, 4(1), 101–115.Google Scholar
- Hogg, M. A. (2006). Self-conceptual uncertainty and the lure of belonging. In R. Brown & D. Capozza (Eds.), Social identities: Motivational, emotional, and cultural influences (pp. 33–49). Hove, England: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- International Ice Hockey Federation. (2016). 2016 Annual Report of the International Ice Hockey Federation. http://www.iihf.com/fileadmin/user_upload/BigFiles/AnnualReport/2016AnnualReport.pdf.
- Kavussanu, M., Seal, A. R., & Phillips, D. R. (2006). Observed prosocial and antisocial behaviors in male soccer teams: Age differences across adolescence and the role of motivational variables. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 18(4), 326–344. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200600944108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lapinski, M. K., & Rimal, R. N. (2005). An explication of social norms. Communication Theory, 15, 127–147. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2005.tb00329.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus statistical modeling software: Release 7.0. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Ostrov, J. M., Murray-Close, D., Godleski, S. A., & Hart, E. J. (2013). Prospective associations between forms and functions of aggression and social and affective processes during early childhood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116(1), 19–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2012.12.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Penner, L. A., Dovidio, J. F., Piliavin, J. A., & Schroeder, D. A. (2005). Prosocial behavior: Multilevel perspectives. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 365–392. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rideout, V. (2012). Social media social life: How teens view their digital lives. Common Sense Media. http://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/social-media-social-life. Accessed 1 August 2017
- Robinson, S. L., & O'Leary-Kelly, A. M. (1998). Monkey see, monkey do: The influence of work groups on the antisocial behavior of employees. Academy of Management Journal, 41(6), 658–672. https://doi.org/10.2307/256963.
- Shapcott, K. M., Bloom, G. A., & Loughead, T. M. (2007). An initial exploration of the factors influencing aggressive and assertive intentions of women ice hockey players. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 38(2), 145–162.Google Scholar
- Sherif, O. J., Harvey, B., White, J. B., Hood, W. R., & Sherif, C. W. (1961). Intergroup conflict and cooperation: The robbers cave experiment. Norman, Okla: University Book Exchange.Google Scholar
- Shields, D. L., Bredemeier, B. L., LaVoi, N. M., & Power, C. F. (2005). The behavior of youth, parents, and coaches: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Journal of Research in Character Education, 3(1), 43–59.Google Scholar
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. 5th edn. Boston, MA: Alyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
- Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. Austin (Ed.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole.Google Scholar
- Vanier, J. L., Bloom, G. A., & Loughead, T. M. (2005). Personal experience, rules, procedures, and aspects of aggression in competitive woman’s ice hockey. Avante, 11, 66–82.Google Scholar
- Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1999). The PANAS-X: Manual for the positive and negative affect schedule-Expanded form. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar