Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 603–632 | Cite as

Evaluation of Yoga for Preventing Adolescent Substance Use Risk Factors in a Middle School Setting: A Preliminary Group-Randomized Controlled Trial

  • Bethany Butzer
  • Amanda LoRusso
  • Sunny H. Shin
  • Sat Bir S. Khalsa
Empirical Research


Adolescence is a key developmental period for preventing substance use initiation, however prevention programs solely providing educational information about the dangers of substance use rarely change adolescent substance use behaviors. Recent research suggests that mind–body practices such as yoga may have beneficial effects on several substance use risk factors, and that these practices may serve as promising interventions for preventing adolescent substance use. The primary aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of yoga for reducing substance use risk factors during early adolescence. Seventh-grade students in a public school were randomly assigned by classroom to receive either a 32-session yoga intervention (n = 117) in place of their regular physical education classes or to continue with physical-education-as-usual (n = 94). Participants (63.2 % female; 53.6 % White) completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires assessing emotional self-regulation, perceived stress, mood impairment, impulsivity, substance use willingness, and actual substance use. Participants also completed questionnaires at 6-months and 1-year post-intervention. Results revealed that participants in the control condition were significantly more willing to try smoking cigarettes immediately post-intervention than participants in the yoga condition. Immediate pre- to post-intervention differences did not emerge for the remaining outcomes. However, long-term follow-up analyses revealed a pattern of delayed effects in which females in the yoga condition, and males in the control condition, demonstrated improvements in emotional self-control. The findings suggest that school-based yoga may have beneficial effects with regard to preventing males’ and females’ willingness to smoke cigarettes, as well as improving emotional self-control in females. However additional research is required, particularly with regard to the potential long-term effects of mind–body interventions in school settings. The present study contributes to the literature on adolescence by examining school-based yoga as a novel prevention program for substance use risk factors.


Yoga Substance use Adolescence Meditation Mindfulness School Addiction 



We are thankful to the KYIS intervention teachers and program mentors: Janna Delgado, Iona Smith, Jordan Grinstein, Renee Merrill, Lucie Kasova, Monica Laitner-Laserna, Cara Masullo, Katherine Olson, and Mikki Pugh. We also acknowledge the headmaster, assistant headmasters, school staff, physical education teachers, and students at the school who facilitated and/or participated in the project. We are grateful to Mark Greenberg for providing guidance during the development and implementation of this project. We also thank Frankye Riley who assisted with preparing this paper for publication.


This work was funded by grants from the Institute for Extraordinary Living of the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (Grant No. R34 DA032756).

Authors’ Contributions

BB coordinated the study, conducted statistical analyses, and drafted the manuscript. AL assisted with the execution of the study and drafted portions of the manuscript. SHS and SBSK conceived of the study, supervised the coordination of the study, and drafted portions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

This study was reviewed and approved by the Brigham and Women’s Hospital Institutional Review Board (Partners Human Research Committee). All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Written parental consent and written child assent were obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. Barnes, P. M., Bloom, B., & Nahin, R. L. (2008). Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007. National Health Statistics Reports, 12, 1–23.Google Scholar
  2. Bergen-Cico, D., Razza, R., & Timmins, A. (2015). Fostering self-regulation through curriculum infusion of mindful yoga: A pilot study of efficacy and feasibility. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(11), 3448–3461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Birdee, G. S., Yeh, G. Y., Wayne, P. M., Phillips, R. S., Davis, R. B., & Gardiner, P. (2009). Clinical applications of yoga for the pediatric population: A systematic review. Academic Pediatrics, 9(4), 212–220. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2009.04.002.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Black, L. I., Clarke, T. C., Barnes, P. M., Stussman, B. J., & Nahin, R. L. (2015). Use of complementary health approaches among children aged 4–17 years in the united states: National health interview survey, 2007–2012. National Health Statistics Reports, 78, 1–19.Google Scholar
  5. Black, D. S., Sussman, S., Johnson, C. A., & Milam, J. (2012a). Testing the indirect effect of trait mindfulness on adolescent cigarette smoking through negative affect and perceived stress mediators. Journal of Substance Use, 17(5–6), 417–429.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Black, D. S., Sussman, S., Johnson, C. A., & Milam, J. (2012b). Trait mindfulness helps shield decision-making from translating into health-risk behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(6), 588–592.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bryan, S., Pinto, Z. G., & Parasher, R. (2012). The effects of yoga on psychosocial variables and exercise adherence: A randomized, controlled pilot study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 18(5), 50–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Butzer, B., Bury, D., Telles, S., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2016). Implementing yoga within the school curriculum: A scientific rationale for improving social-emotional learning and positive student outcomes. Journal of Children’s Services, 11(1), 3–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Butzer, B., Ebert, M., Telles, S., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2015a). School-based yoga programs in the United States: A survey. Advances in Mind Body Medicine, 29, 18–26.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Butzer, B., van Over, M., Noggle Taylor, J. J., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2015). Yoga may mitigate decreases in high school grades. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM, ID 259814, 1–8.Google Scholar
  11. Calajoe, A. (1987). Yoga as a therapeutic component in treating chemical dependency. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 3(4), 33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carim-Todd, L., Mitchell, S. H., & Oken, B. S. (2013). Mind–body practices: An alternative, drug-free treatment for smoking cessation? A systematic review of the literature. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132(3), 399–410.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. CDC. (2014). YRBSS—youth risk behavior surveillance system—adolescent and school health. Retrieved July 2014 from
  14. Chan, Y. F., Dennis, M. L., & Funk, R. R. (2008). Prevalence and comorbidity of major internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents and adults presenting to substance abuse treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 34(1), 14–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chassin, L. (2015). Self-regulation and adolescent substance use. In G. Oettingen & P. M. Gollwitzer (Eds.), Self-regulation in adolescence (pp. 266–287). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2014). Are mindfulness-based interventions effective for substance use disorders? A systematic review of the evidence. Substance Use and Misuse, 49(5), 492–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385–396.Google Scholar
  18. Conboy, L. A., Noggle, J. J., Frey, J. L., Kudesia, R. S., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2013). Qualitative evaluation of a high school yoga program: Feasibility and perceived benefits. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 9(3), 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Copeland, W., Shanahan, L., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2011). Cumulative prevalence of psychiatric disorders by young adulthood: A prospective cohort analysis from the great smoky mountains study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(3), 252–261. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2010.12.014.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cramer, H., Lauche, R., Haller, H., Steckhan, N., Michalsen, A., & Dobos, G. (2014). Effects of yoga on cardiovascular disease risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Cardiology, 173(2), 170–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cramer, H., Lauche, R., Langhorst, J., & Dobos, G. (2013). Yoga for depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Depression and Anxiety, 30(11), 1068–1083.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cross, C. P., Copping, L. T., & Campbell, A. (2011). Sex differences in impulsivity: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 137(1), 97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dakwar, E., & Levin, F. R. (2009). The emerging role of meditation in addressing psychiatric illness, with a focus on substance use disorders. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 17(4), 254–267.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daly, L. A., Haden, S. C., Hagins, M., Papouchis, N., & Ramirez, P. M. (2015). Yoga and emotion regulation in high school students: A randomized controlled trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Article ID 794928, 1–8.Google Scholar
  25. Dhawan, A., Chopra, A., Jain, R., & Yadav, D. (2015). Effectiveness of yogic breathing intervention on quality of life of opioid dependent users. International Journal of Yoga, 8(2), 144.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eldridge, S., Ashby, D., Bennett, C., Wakelin, M., & Feder, G. (2008). Internal and external validity of cluster randomised trials: Systematic review of recent trials. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 336(7649), 876–880. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39517.495764.25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Felver, J. C., Butzer, B., Olson, K. J., Smith, I. M., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2015). Yoga in public school improves adolescent mood and affect. Contemporary School Psychology, 19(3), 184–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ferreira-Vorkapic, C., Feitoza, J., Marchioro, M., Simões, J., Kozasa, E., & Telles, S. (2015). Are there benefits from teaching yoga at schools? A systematic review of randomized control trials of yoga-based interventions. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Article ID 345835, 1–17.Google Scholar
  30. Fishbein, D., Miller, S., Herman-Stahl, M., Williams, J., Lavery, B., Markovitz, L., & Johnson, M. (2015). Behavioral and psychophysiological effects of a yoga intervention on high-risk adolescents: A randomized control trial. Journal of Child and Family Studies,. doi: 10.1007/s10826-015-0231-6.Google Scholar
  31. Frank, J. L., Bose, B., & Schrobenhauser-Clonan, A. (2014). Effectiveness of a school-based yoga program on adolescent mental health, stress coping strategies, and attitudes toward violence: Findings from a high-risk sample. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 30(1), 29–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Galantino, M. L., Galbavy, R., & Quinn, L. (2008). Therapeutic effects of yoga for children: A systematic review of the literature. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 20(1), 66–80. doi: 10.1097/PEP.0b013e31815f1208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., Ouellette, J. A., & Burzette, R. (1998). Cognitive antecedents to adolescent health risk: Discriminating between behavioral intention and behavioral willingness. Psychology and Health, 13(2), 319–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Glassman, T., Werch, C. C., & Jobli, E. (2007). Alcohol self-control behaviors of adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 32(3), 590–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gould, M. S., Marrocco, F. A., Kleinman, M., Thomas, J. G., Mostkoff, K., Cote, J., & Davies, M. (2005). Evaluating iatrogenic risk of youth suicide screening programs. JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(13), 1635–1643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Grant, B. F., Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Chou, S. P., Dufour, M. C., Compton, W., & Kaplan, K. (2004). Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(8), 807–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Greenberg, M. T. (2010). School-based prevention: Current status and future challenges. Effective Education, 2(1), 27–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Greenberg, M. T., & Harris, A. R. (2012). Nurturing mindfulness in children and youth: Current state of research. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 161–166. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00215.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Haden, S. C., Daly, L., & Hagins, M. (2014). A randomised controlled trial comparing the impact of yoga and physical education on the emotional and behavioural functioning of middle school children. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 19(3), 148–155.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hagen, I., & Nayar, U. S. (2014). Yoga for children and young people’s mental health and well-being: Research review and reflections on the mental health potentials of yoga. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5(35), 1–6.Google Scholar
  42. Hagins, M., Haden, S. C., & Daly, L. A. (2013). A randomized controlled trial on the effects of yoga on stress reactivity in 6th grade students. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Article ID 607134), 1–9. doi: 10.1155/2013/607134.
  43. Hallgren, M., Romberg, K., Bakshi, A., & Andréasson, S. (2014). Yoga as an adjunct treatment for alcohol dependence: A pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 22(3), 441–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Harris, P. A., Taylor, R., Thielke, R., Payne, J., Gonzalez, N., & Conde, J. G. (2009). Research electronic data capture (REDCap)—a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 42(2), 377–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Harvey, P. D., Greenberg, B. R., & Serper, M. R. (1989). The affective lability scales: Development, reliability, and validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45(5), 786–793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hill, J. P., & Lynch, M. E. (1983). The intensification of gender-related role expectations during early adolescence. Girls at puberty (pp. 201–228). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  47. Himelstein, S., Saul, S., Garcia-Romeu, A., & Pinedo, D. (2014). Mindfulness training as an intervention for substance user incarcerated adolescents: A pilot grounded theory study. Substance Use and Misuse, 49(5), 560–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Idrisov, B., Sun, P., Akhmadeeva, L., Arpawong, T. E., Kukhareva, P., & Sussman, S. (2013). Immediate and six-month effects of project EX russia: A smoking cessation intervention pilot program. Addictive Behaviors, 38(8), 2402–2408.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jeter, P. E., Slutsky, J., Singh, N., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2015). Yoga as a therapeutic intervention: A bibliometric analysis of published research studies from 1967 to 2013. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 21(10), 586–592.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2006). Monitoring the future: National survey results on drug use, 1975–2005. volume 1: Secondary school students, 2005. NIH Publication No. 06-5883. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).Google Scholar
  51. Kaley-Isley, L. C., Peterson, J., Fischer, C., & Peterson, E. (2010). Yoga as a complementary therapy for children and adolescents: A guide for clinicians. Psychiatry (Edgmont), 7(8), 20–32.Google Scholar
  52. Kallapiran, K., Koo, S., Kirubakaran, R., & Hancock, K. (2015). Review: Effectiveness of mindfulness in improving mental health symptoms of children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 20(4), 182–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kassel, J. D., Jackson, S. I., & Unrod, M. (2000). Generalized expectations for negative mood regulation and problem drinking among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 61, 332–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Katz, D., & Toner, B. (2013). A systematic review of gender differences in the effectiveness of mindfulness-based treatments for substance use disorders. Mindfulness, 4(4), 318–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kendall, P. C., & Williams, C. L. (1982). Assessing the cognitive and behavioral components of children’s self-management. In P. Karoly & F. H. Kanfer (Eds.), Self-management and behavior change (pp. 240–284). New York, NY: Pergamon.  Google Scholar
  56. Khalsa, S. B. S., & Butzer, B. (2016). Yoga in school settings: A research review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,. doi: 10.1111/nyas.13025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Khalsa, S. B., Hickey-Schultz, L., Cohen, D., Steiner, N., & Cope, S. (2012). Evaluation of the mental health benefits of yoga in a secondary school: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 39(1), 80–90. doi: 10.1007/s11414-011-9249-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Khanna, S., & Greeson, J. M. (2013). A narrative review of yoga and mindfulness as complementary therapies for addiction. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 21(3), 244–252.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. King, S. M., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2004). Childhood externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in the prediction of the early substance use. Addiction, 99, 1548–1559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kissen, M., & Kissen-Kohn, D. A. (2009). Reducing addictions via the self-soothing effects of yoga. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 73(1), 34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. KYIS. (2015). Kripalu yoga in the schools (KYIS). Retrieved March 2015 from
  62. Locascio, J. J., & Atri, A. (2011). An overview of longitudinal data analysis methods for neurological research. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 1(1), 330–357.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lohman, R. (1999). Yoga techniques applicable within drug and alcohol rehabilitation programmes. Therapeutic Communities-London-Association of Therapeutic Communiities, 20, 61–72.Google Scholar
  64. LoRusso, A. M., Butzer, B., Windsor, R., Riley, F., Frame, K., Khalsa, S. B. S., et al. (2015). A qualitative examination of yoga for middle school adolescents. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  65. Lynam, D., Smith, G., Whiteside, S., & Cyders, M. (2006). The UPPS-P: Assessing five personality pathways to impulsive behavior. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University.Google Scholar
  66. McCall, M. C. (2014). In search of yoga: Research trends in a western medical database. International Journal of Yoga, 7(1), 4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mendelson, T., Dariotis, J. K., Gould, L. F., Smith, A. S., Smith, A. A., Gonzalez, A. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2013). Implementing mindfulness and yoga in urban schools: A community-academic partnership. Journal of Children’s Services, 8(4), 276–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. MESE (Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education). (2015). 2013–2014 class size by gender, selected populations, and race/ethnicity; cohort 2014 graduation rates. Retrieved March 2015 from
  69. Miller, S., Herman-Stahl, M., Fishbein, D., Lavery, B., Johnson, M., & Markovits, L. (2014). Use of formative research to develop a yoga curriculum for high-risk youth: Implementation considerations. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 7(3), 171–183. doi: 10.1080/1754730X.2014.916496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Moss, H. B., Chen, C. M., & Yi, H. Y. (2014). Early adolescent patterns of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana polysubstance use and young adult substance use outcomes in a nationally representative sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 136, 51–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. MTF (Monitoring The Future Survey). (2015). Monitoring the future 2015 survey results. Retrieved April 2016 from
  72. Noggle, J. J., Steiner, N. J., Minami, T., & Khalsa, S. B. (2012). Benefits of yoga for psychosocial well-being in a US high school curriculum: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics : JDBP, 33(3), 193–201. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e31824afdc4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. O’Connell, M. E., Boat, T., & Warner, K. E. (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. Washington, USA: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  74. Parker, A. E., Kupersmidt, J. B., Mathis, E. T., Scull, T. M., & Sims, C. (2014). The impact of mindfulness education on elementary school students: Evaluation of the master mind program. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 7(3), 184–204. doi: 10.1080/1754730X.2014.916497.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pentz, M. A. (2014). Integrating mindfulness into school-based substance use and other prevention programs. Substance Use and Misuse, 49(5), 617–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Purohit, S. P., Pradhan, B., & Nagendra, H. R. (2016). Effect of yoga on EUROFIT physical fitness parameters on adolescents dwelling in an orphan home: A randomized control study. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 11(1), 33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Razza, R. A., Bergen-Cico, D., & Raymond, K. (2015). Enhancing preschoolers’ self-regulation via mindful yoga. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(2), 372–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Reddy, S., Dick, A. M., Gerber, M. R., & Mitchell, K. (2014). The effect of a yoga intervention on alcohol and drug abuse risk in veteran and civilian women with posttraumatic stress disorder. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 20(10), 750–756.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ross, A., & Thomas, S. (2010). The health benefits of yoga and exercise: A review of comparison studies. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16(1), 3–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sale, E., Weil, V., & Kryah, R. (2012). An exploratory investigation of the promoting responsibility through education and prevention (PREP) after school program for African American at-risk elementary school students. School Social Work Journal, 36(2), 56–72.Google Scholar
  81. Schulenberg, J., Patrick, M. E., Maslowsky, J., & Maggs, J. L. (2014). The epidemiology and etiology of adolescent substance use in developmental perspective. In M. Lewis & K. D. Rudolph (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 601–620). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Serwacki, M. L., & Cook-Cottone, C. (2012). Yoga in the schools: A systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 22, 101–109.Google Scholar
  83. Sharma, M. (2014). Yoga as an alternative and complementary approach for stress management: A systematic review. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 19, 59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sibinga, E. M., Perry-Parrish, C., Thorpe, K., Mika, M., & Ellen, J. M. (2014). A small mixed-method RCT of mindfulness instruction for urban youth. EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing, 10(3), 180–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Simons, J. S., Carey, K. B., & Gaher, R. M. (2004). Lability and impulsivity synergistically increase risk for alcohol-related problems. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 30(3), 685–694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Skiba, D., Monroe, J., & Wodarski, J. S. (2004). Adolescent substance use: Reviewing the effectiveness of prevention strategies. Social Work, 49(3), 343–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Smith, R. A., Levine, T. R., Lachlan, K. A., & Fediuk, T. A. (2002). The high cost of complexity in experimental design and data analysis: Type I and type II error rates in multiway ANOVA. Human Communication Research, 28(4), 515–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Southam-Gerow, M. A. (2013). Emotion regulation in children and adolescents: A practitioner’s guide. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  89. Sproull, N. L. (2002). Handbook of research methods: A guide for practitioners and students in the social sciences. Lanham, MA: Scarecrow Press.Google Scholar
  90. Steinberg, L. (2015). The neural underpinnings of adolescent risk-taking: The roles of reward-seeking, impulse control, and peers. In G. Oettingen & P. M. Gollwitzer (Eds.), Self-regulation in adolescence (pp. 173–192). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Strahan, R. F. (1982). Multivariate analysis and the problem of type I error. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(2), 175–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sureka, P., Govil, S., Dash, D., Dash, C., Kumar, M., & Singhal, V. (2014). Sudarshan kriya for male patients with psycho active substance dependence: A randomized control trial. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 16(1), 28–37.Google Scholar
  93. Sussman, S., Dent, C. W., & Lichtman, K. L. (2001). Project EX: Outcomes of a teen smoking cessation program. Addictive Behaviors, 26(3), 425–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Telles, S., Singh, N., Bhardwaj, A. K., Kumar, A., & Balkrishna, A. (2013). Effect of yoga or physical exercise on physical, cognitive and emotional measures in children: a randomized controlled trial. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health, 7(1), 37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tercek, R. C. (2008). Impulsivity: Examining links to risk-taking behavior among adolescent detainees. ProQuest.Google Scholar
  96. Terry, P. C., & Lane, A. M. (2002). Apology. development and validation of a mood measure for adolescents. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20(4), 365. doi: 10.1080/0264041021682798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Terry, P. C., Lane, A. M., Lane, H. J., & Keohane, L. (1999). Development and validation of a mood measure for adolescents. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17(11), 861–872. doi: 10.1080/026404199365425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wang, D., & Hagins, M. (2016). Perceived benefits of yoga among urban school students: A qualitative analysis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016. Article ID 8725654. doi: 10.1155/2016/8725654
  99. Warner, R. M. (2008). Applied statistics: From bivariate through multivariate techniques. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  100. White, L. S. (2012). Reducing stress in school-age girls through mindful yoga. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 26(1), 45–56. doi: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2011.01.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Whitesell, M., Bachand, A., Peel, J., & Brown, M. (2013). Familial, social, and individual factors contributing to risk for adolescent substance use. Journal of addiction, 2013, Article ID 579310. doi: 10.1155/2013/579310
  102. Wills, T. A. (1986). Stress and coping in early adolescence: Relationships to substance use in urban school samples. Health Psychology, 5(6), 503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wills, T. A., & Ainette, M. G. (2010). Temperament, self-control and adolescent substance use. In L. M. Scheier (ed.), Handbook of Drug Use Etiology: Theory, Methods and Empirical Findings (pp. 127–146). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.  Google Scholar
  104. Wills, T. A., Ainette, M. G., Mendoza, D., Gibbons, F. X., & Brody, G. H. (2007). Self-control, symptomatology, and substance use precursors: Test of a theoretical model in a community sample of 9-year-old children. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 21(2), 205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wills, T. A., & Dishion, T. J. (2004). Temperament and adolescent substance use: A transactional analysis of emerging self-control. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(1), 69–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wills, T. A., Gibbons, F. X., Sargent, J. D., Gerrard, M., Lee, H. R., & Dal, C. S. (2010). Good self-control moderates the effect of mass media on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use: Tests with studies of children and adolescents. Health Psychology, 29(5), 539–549.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wills, T. A., Sandy, J. M., & Yaeger, A. M. (2001). Time perspective and early-onset substance use: A model based on stress–coping theory. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15(2), 118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wills, T. A., Simons, J. S., & Gibbons, F. X. (2015). Self-control and substance use prevention: A translational analysis. In L. M. Scheier (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent drug use prevention: Research, intervention strategies, and practice (pp. 121–139). Washington, USA: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wills, T. A., Walker, C., Mendoza, D., & Ainette, M. G. (2006). Behavioral and emotional self-control: Relations to substance use in samples of middle and high school students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20(3), 265–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wittenauer, J., Ascher, M., Briggie, A., Kreiter, A., & Chavez, J. (2015). The role of complementary and alternative medicine in adolescent substance use disorders. Adolescent Psychiatry, 5(2), 96–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zahn-Waxler, C., Shirtcliff, E. A., & Marceau, K. (2008). Disorders of childhood and adolescence: Gender and psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 275–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zeman, J., Shipman, K., & Penza-Clyve, S. (2001). Development and initial validation of the children’s sadness management scale. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 25(3), 187–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Zeman, J., Shipman, K., & Suveg, C. (2002). Anger and sadness regulation: Predictions to internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31(3), 393–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zgierska, A., Rabago, D., Chawla, N., Kushner, K., Koehler, R., & Marlatt, A. (2009). Mindfulness meditation for substance use disorders: A systematic review. Substance Abuse, 30(4), 266–294.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhuang, S. M., An, S. H., & Zhao, Y. (2013). Yoga effects on mood and quality of life in Chinese women undergoing heroin detoxification: A randomized controlled trial. Nursing Research, 62(4), 260–268. doi: 10.1097/NNR.0b013e318292379b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zoogman, S., Goldberg, S. B., Hoyt, W. T., & Miller, L. (2015). Mindfulness interventions with youth: A meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 6(2), 290–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bethany Butzer
    • 1
  • Amanda LoRusso
    • 2
  • Sunny H. Shin
    • 3
  • Sat Bir S. Khalsa
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of New York in PraguePraha 2, PragueCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.School of Social Work and Department of Psychiatry, School of MedicineVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations