Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 45, Issue 10, pp 2164–2177 | Cite as

A Longitudinal Test of the Parent–Adolescent Family Functioning Discrepancy Hypothesis: A Trend toward Increased HIV Risk Behaviors Among Immigrant Hispanic Adolescents

  • David Córdova
  • Seth J. Schwartz
  • Jennifer B. Unger
  • Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati
  • Juan A. Villamar
  • Daniel W. Soto
  • Sabrina E. Des Rosiers
  • Tae Kyoung Lee
  • Alan Meca
  • Miguel Ángel Cano
  • Elma I. Lorenzo-Blanco
  • Assaf Oshri
  • Christopher P. Salas-Wright
  • Brandy Piña-Watson
  • Andrea J. Romero
Empirical Research


Parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning play an important role in HIV risk behaviors among adolescents, yet longitudinal research with recent immigrant Hispanic families remains limited. This study tested the effects of trajectories of parent–adolescent family functioning discrepancies on HIV risk behaviors among recent-immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Additionally, we examined whether and to what extent trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies vary as a function of gender. We assessed family functioning of 302 Hispanic adolescents (47 % female) and their parent (70 % female) at six time points over a three-year period and computed latent discrepancy scores between parent and adolescent reports at each timepoint. Additionally, adolescents completed measures of sexual risk behaviors and alcohol use. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to determine the feasibility of collapsing parent and adolescent reported family functioning indicators onto a single latent discrepancy variable, tested model invariance over time, and conducted growth mixture modeling (GMM). GMM yielded a three-class solution for discrepancies: High-Increasing, High-Stable, and Low-Stable. Relative to the Low-Stable class, parent–adolescent dyads in the High-Increasing and High-Stable classes were at greater risk for adolescents reporting sexual debut at time 6. Additionally, the High-Stable class was at greater risk, relative to the Low-Stable class, in terms of adolescent lifetime alcohol use at 30 months post-baseline. Multiple group GMM indicated that trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning trajectories did not vary by gender. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.


HIV Alcohol use Family functioning Discrepancies Adolescents 


Authors’ Contributions

DC conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, performed statistical analysis, participated in interpretation of the data, and wrote the first draft of the manuscript; SJ participated in conception and design of study, data collection, statistical analysis and interpretation of the data; JU participated in conception and design of study, data collection; LBG participated in conception and design of study, and data collection; JV participated in conception and design of study, and data collection; DS participated in conception and design of study, and data collection; SDR participated in conception and design of study, and data collection; TKL participated in statistical analysis and interpretation of the data; AM participated in statistical analysis and interpretation of the data; MAC participated in conception and design of study and interpretation of the data; ELB participated in conception and design of study, and interpretation of the data; AO participated in statistical analysis and interpretation of the data; CSW participated in conception and design of study, and interpretation of the data; BPW participated in conception and design of study, and interpretation of the data; AR participated in conception and design of study, and interpretation of the data. All authors read, revised and approved the final manuscript.

Conflicts of interest

The authors report no conflict of interests.


This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, co-funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (Grant DA026594; Seth J. Schwartz, PI; Jennifer B. Unger, Co-PI). Preparation of this manuscript was supported in part by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health (Grant R25 MH067127; Torsten B. Neilands) and National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Loan Repayment Program (Grant L60 MD006269; PI, David Córdova).

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Córdova
    • 1
  • Seth J. Schwartz
    • 2
  • Jennifer B. Unger
    • 3
  • Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati
    • 3
  • Juan A. Villamar
    • 4
  • Daniel W. Soto
    • 3
  • Sabrina E. Des Rosiers
    • 5
  • Tae Kyoung Lee
    • 2
  • Alan Meca
    • 2
  • Miguel Ángel Cano
    • 6
  • Elma I. Lorenzo-Blanco
    • 7
  • Assaf Oshri
    • 8
  • Christopher P. Salas-Wright
    • 9
  • Brandy Piña-Watson
    • 10
  • Andrea J. Romero
    • 11
  1. 1.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.University of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  3. 3.University of Southern California Keck School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Northwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  5. 5.Barry UniversityMiamiUSA
  6. 6.Florida International UniversityMiamiUSA
  7. 7.University of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  8. 8.University of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  9. 9.Boston UniversityBostonUSA
  10. 10.Texas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA
  11. 11.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA

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