Advertisement

Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 478–488 | Cite as

Risk Behaviors and Negative Health Outcomes for Adolescents with Late Bedtimes

  • Eleanor L. McGlinchey
  • Allison G. Harvey
Empirical Research

Abstract

Late bedtimes in adolescence may be a serious risk factor for later poor health and functional outcomes. The current study sought to extend existing cross sectional data by examining whether late bedtimes in adolescence predicts poor outcomes in young adulthood. Data from wave 2 (1996) and wave 3 (2001–2002) of the nationally representative sample of US youth (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between late bedtime, and several risk behaviors and negative health outcomes following 3,843 adolescents into young adulthood. At wave 2 the mean age was 16 with 52.1 % female. At wave 3 the mean age was 21.8. In cross sectional analyses, late bedtime was associated with 1.5 to over 3 times greater odds of involvement in risk behaviors and negative health outcomes, including emotional distress, suicidality, criminal and violent activity, and use of cigarettes, alcohol and illicit drugs. In longitudinal analyses, late bedtime assessed at wave 2 predicted a number of serious health outcomes at wave 3, with late bedtime in adolescence associated with around 1.5 greater odds of involvement in health jeopardizing behaviors such as criminal activity, alcohol abuse, cigarette use, illicit drug use and emotional distress in young adulthood. There was also a dose effect, such that the later the bedtime in adolescence, the greater the risk of involvement in risk behaviors in young adulthood. This research suggests that late bedtime in adolescence predicts multiple serious risk behaviors and health outcomes in young adulthood.

Keywords

Late bedtime Eveningness Adolescent health Risk behaviors Health outcomes 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award Predoctoral Fellowship F31-HD058411 awarded to ELM and Grant 1R01HD071065-01A1 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development awarded to AGH. This research uses data from Add Health, a program project designed by J. Richard Udry, Peter S. Bearman, and Kathleen Mullan Harris, and funded by a Grant P01-HD31921 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, with cooperative funding from 17 other agencies. Special acknowledgment is due Ronald R. Rindfuss and Barbara Entwisle for assistance in the original design. Persons interested in obtaining data files from Add Health should contact Add Health, Carolina Population Center, 123 W. Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-2524 (addhealth@unc.edu). No direct support was received from Grant P01-HD31921 for this analysis. This research uses data from the AHAA study, which was funded by a Grant (R01 HD040428-02, Chandra Muller, PI) from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and a Grant (REC-0126167, Chandra Muller, PI, and Pedro Reyes, Co-PI) from the National Science Foundation. This research was also supported by Grant, 5 R24 HD042849, Population Research Center, awarded to the Population Research Center at The University of Texas at Austin by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Health and Child Development. Opinions reflect those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the granting agencies.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Author contributions

EM conceived of the research question, performed the statistical analysis, interpretation of the data and drafted the manuscript. AH conceived of the research question, interpretation of the data and drafted the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

References

  1. Adan, A. (1994). Chronotype and personality factors in the daily consumptions of alcohol and psychostimulants. Addiction, 89, 455–462. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1994.tb00926.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adan, A., Archer, S. N., Hidalgo, M. P., Di Milia, L., Natale, V., & Randler, C. (2012). Circadian typology: A comprehensive review. Chronobiology International, 29(9), 1153–1175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adan, A., Natale, V., Caci, H., & Prat, G. (2010). Relationship between circadian typology and functional and dysfunctional impulsivity. Chronobiology International, 27, 606–619. doi: 10.3109/07420521003663827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asarnow, L., McGlinchey, E. L., & Harvey, A. (2014). The effects of bedtime and sleep duration on academic and emotional outcomes in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 54, 350–356.Google Scholar
  5. Borowsky, I. W., Ireland, M., & Resnick, M. D. (2009). Health status and behavioral outcomes for youth who anticipate a high likelihood of early death. Pediatrics, 124, 81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carskadon, M. A. (1990). Patterns of sleep and sleepiness in adolescents. Pediatrician, 17(1), 5–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Carskadon, M. A., Acebo, C., & Jenni, O. G. (2004). Regulation of Adolescent Sleep: Implications for Behavior. In R. E. Dahl & L. P. Spear (Eds.), Adolescent brain development vulnerabilities and opportunities (Vol. 1021, pp. 276–291). New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  8. Cartwright, R., Luten, A., Young, M., Mercer, P., & Bears, M. (1998). Role of REM sleep and dream affect in overnight mood regulation: A study of normal volunteers. Psychiatry Research, 81, 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chelminski, I., Ferraro, F. R., Petros, T. V., & Plaud, J. J. (1999). An analysis of the “eveningness–morningness” dimension in “depressive” college students. Journal of Affective Disorders, 52, 19–29. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0327(98)00051-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen, C.-Y., Storr, C. L., & Anthony, J. C. (2009). Early-onset drug use and risk for drug dependence problems. Addictive Behaviors, 34(3), 319–322.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Costello, E., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(8), 837–844. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.60.8.837.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dahl, R. E., & Lewin, D. S. (2002). Pathways to adolescent health sleep regulation and behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31(6), 175–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Drummond, S. P., Brown, G. G., Gillen, J. C., Stricker, J. L., Wong, E. C., & Buston, R. B. (2000). Altered brain response to verbal learning following sleep deprivation. Nature, 403, 655–657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fredriksen, K., Rhodes, J., Reddy, R., & Way, N. (2004). Sleepless in Chicago: Tracking the effects of adolescent sleep loss during the middle school years. Child Development, 75(1), 84–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gaspar-Barba, E., Calati, R., Cruz-Fuentes, C. S., Ontiveros-Uribe, M. P., Natale, V., De Ronchi, D., et al. (2009). Depressive symptomatology is influenced by chronotypes. Journal of Affective Disorders, 119, 100–106. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.02.021.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gau, S. S., Shang, C. Y., Merikangas, K. R., Chiu, Y. N., Soong, W. T., & Cheng, A. T. (2007). Association between morningness and eveningness and behavioral/emotional problems among adolescents. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 22, 268–274. doi: 10.1177/0748730406298447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gault-Sherman, M. (2012). It’s a two-way street: The bidirectional relationship between parenting and delinquency. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(2), 121–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Giampietro, M., & Cavallera, G. M. (2007). Morning and evening types and creative thinking. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 453–463. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.06.027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Giannotti, F., Cortesi, F., Sebastiani, T., & Ottaviano, S. (2002). Circadian preference, sleep and daytime behaviour in adolescence. Journal of Sleep Research, 11, 191–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Giedd, J. N. (2004). Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1021, 77–85. doi: 10.1196/annals.1308.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Giedd, J. N., Blumenthal, J., Jeffries, N. O., Castellanos, F. X., Liu, H., Zijdenbos, A., et al. (1999). Brain development during childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal MRI study [letter]. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 861–863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Goldstein, D., Hahn, C., Hasher, L., Wiprzycka, U., & Zelazo, P. D. (2007). Time of day, intellectual performance, and behavioral problems in morning versus evening type adolescents: Is there a synchrony effect? Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 431–440. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.07.008.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gradisar, M., Gardner, G., & Dohnt, H. (2011). Recent worldwide sleep patterns and problems during adolescence: A review and meta-analysis of age, region, and sleep. Sleep Medicine, 12(2), 110–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gregory, A. M., & O’Connor, T. G. (2002). Sleep problems in childhood: A longitudinal study of developmental change and association with behavioral problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(8), 964–971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hansen, M., Janssen, I., Schiff, A., Zee, P. C., & Dubocovich, M. L. (2005). The impact of school daily schedule on adolescent sleep. Pediatrics, 115, 1555–1561. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-1649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Harris, K. M., Gordon-Larsen, P., Chantala, K., & Udry, J. R. (2006). Longitudinal trends in race/ethnic disparities in leading health indicators from adolescence to young adulthood. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 160, 74–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Horne, J. A., & Östberg, O. A. (1976). A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness–eveningness in human circadian rhythms. International Journal of Chronobiology, 4, 97–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kauderer, S., & Randler, C. (2012). Differences in time use among chronotypes in adolescents. Biological Rhythm Research, 44(4), 601–608. doi: 10.1080/09291016.2012.721687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Killgore, W. D. S. (2010). Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition. Progress in Brain Research, 185, 105–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kitamura, S., Hida, A., Watanabe, M., Enomoto, M., Aritake-Okada, S., Moriguchi, Y., et al. (2010). Evening preference is related to the incidence of depressive states independent of sleep-wake conditions. Chronobiology International, 27, 1797–1812. doi: 10.3109/07420528.2010.516705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lange, L., & Randler, C. (2011). Morningness–eveningness and behavioural problems in adolescents. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 9(1), 12–18. doi: 10.1111/j.1479-8425.2010.00478.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lemola, S., Schwarz, B., & Siffert, A. (2012). Interparental conflict and early adolescents’ aggression: Is irregular sleep a vulnerability factor? Journal of adolescence, 35(1), 97–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McClung, C. A. (2013). How might circadian rhythms control mood? Let me count the ways…. Biological Psychiatry, 74, 236–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Meijer, A. M., Reitz, E., Deković, M., Van Den Wittenboer, G. L., & Stoel, R. D. (2010). Longitudinal relations between sleep quality, time in bed and adolescent problem behaviour. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(11), 1278–1286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Meldrum, R. C., Barnes, J. C., & Hay, C. (2013). Sleep deprivation, low self-control, and delinquency: A test of the strength model of self-control. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. doi: 10.1007/s10964-013-0024-4.
  36. Negriff, S., Dorn, L. D., Pabst, S. R., & Susman, E. J. (2011). Morningness/eveningness, pubertal timing, and substance use in adolescent girls. Psychiatry Research, 185, 408–413.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Owens, J. A., Belon, K., & Moss, P. (2010). Impact of delaying school start time on adolescent sleep, mood, and behavior. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 164(7), 608–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Paavonen, E. J., Solantaus, T., Almqvist, F., & Aronen, E. T. (2003). Four-year follow-up study of sleep and psychiatric symptoms in preadolescents: Relationship of persistent and temporary sleep problems to psychiatric symptoms. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 24(5), 307–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pea, R., Nass, C., Meheula, L., Rance, M., Kumar, A., Bamford, H., et al. (2012). Media use, face-to-face communication, media multitasking, and social well-being among 8- to 12-year-old girls. Developmental Psychology, 48(2), 327–336. doi: 10.1037/a0027030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Peach, H. D., & Gaultney, J. F. (2013). Sleep, impulse control, and sensation-seeking predict delinquent behavior in adolescents, emerging adults, and adults. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, 293–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Perlis, M. L., & Nielsen, T. A. (1993). Mood regulation, dreaming and nightmares: Evaluation of a desensitization function for REM sleep. Dreaming, 3, 243–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pieters, S., Van Der Vorst, H., Burk, W. J., Wiers, R. W., & Engels, R. C. (2010). Puberty-dependent sleep regulation and alcohol use in early adolescents. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 34(9), 1512–1518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Randler, C. (2008). Differences between smokers and non-smokers in morning–eveningness. Social Behavior and Personality, 36, 565–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Randler, C. (2011). Age and gender differences in morningness–eveningness during adolescence. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 172, 302–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Resnick, M. D., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R. W., Bauman, K. E., Harris, K. M., Jones, J., et al. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm. Findings from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. Journal of Medical American Association, 278(10), 823–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Roberts, R. E., & Kyllonen, P. C. (1999). Morningness–eveningness and intelligence: Early to bed, early to rise will likely make you anything but wise! Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 1123–1133. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00054-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Roberts, R. E., Roberts, C. R., & Duong, H. T. (2008). Chronic insomnia and its negative consequences for health and functioning of adolescents: A 12-month prospective study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42(3), 294–302.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Roberts, R. E., Roberts, C. R., & Duong, H. T. (2009). Sleepless in adolescence: Prospective data on sleep deprivation, health and functioning. Journal of Adolescence, 32(5), 1045–1057. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2009.03.007.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Roenneberg, T., Kuehnle, T., Pramstaller, P. P., Ricken, J., Havel, M., Guth, A., et al. (2004). A marker for the end of adolescence. Current Biology, 14(24), R1038–R1039. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2004.11.039.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Roenneberg, T., Wirz-Justice, A., & Merrow, M. (2003). Life between clocks: Daily temporal patterns of human chronotypes. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 18(1), 1865–1870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sieving, R. E., Beuhring, T., Resnick, M. D., Bearinger, L. H., Shew, M., Ireland, M., et al. (2001). Development of adolescent self-report measures from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 28, 73–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stata Statistical Software. (2011). Release 12.0. College Station, Tex: Stata Corp.Google Scholar
  53. Steinberg, L. (2010). A behavioral scientist looks at the science of adolescent brain development. Brain and Cognition, 72, 160–164. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2009.11.003.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stringaris, A., & Goodman, R. (2009). Longitudinal outcome of youth oppositionality: Irritable, headstrong, and hurtful behaviors have destinctive predictions. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 404–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Susman, E. J., Dockray, S., Schiefelbein, V. L., Herwehe, S., Heaton, J. A., & Dorn, L. D. (2007). Morningness/eveningness, morning-to-afternoon cortisol ratio, and antisocial behavior problems during puberty. Developmental Psychology, 43, 811–822. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.4.811.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tankova, I., Adan, A., & Buela-Casal, G. (1994). Circadian typology and individual differences: A review. Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 671–784. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)90209-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Terman, J. S., Terman, M., Lo, E. S., & Cooper, T. B. (2001). Circadian time of morning light administration and therapeutic response in winter depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 69–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tonetti, L., Fabbri, M., & Natale, V. (2008). Sex difference in sleep-time preference and sleep need: A cross-sectional survey among Italian pre-adolescents, adolescents, and adults. Chronobiology International, 25, 745–759. doi: 10.1080/07420520802394191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tonetti, L., Fabbri, M., & Natale, V. (2009). Relationship between circadian typology and big five personality domains. Chronobiology International, 25, 337–347. doi: 10.1080/07420520902750995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tourangeau, R., & Shin, H.-C. (1999). Grand sample weights. Carolina Population Center, http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/data/guides/weights.pdf/view. Accessed August 2, 2013.
  61. Udry, J. R., Li, R. M., & Hendrickson-Smith, J. (2003). Health and behavior risks of adolescents with mixed-race identity. American Journal of Public Health, 93(11), 1865–1870.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R. D., Henly, G. A., & Schwartz, R. H. (1990). Validity of adolescent self-report of alcohol and other drug involvement. Substance Use and Misuse, 25(s11), 1379–1395. doi: 10.3109/10826089009068469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wolfson, A. R., & Carskadon, M. A. (1998). Sleep schedules and daytime functioning in adolescents. Child Development, 69, 875–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wong, M. M., Brower, K. J., Fitzgerald, H. E., & Zucker, R. A. (2004). Sleep problems in early childhood and early onset of alcohol and other drug use in adolescence. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 28(4), 578–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wong, M. M., Brower, K. J., & Zucker, R. A. (2011). Sleep problems, suicidal ideation, and self-harm behaviors in adolescence. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(4), 505–511. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.09.005.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yoo, S., Gujar, N., Hu, P., Jolesz, F., & Walker, M. (2007). The human emotional brain without sleep: A prefrontal-amygdala disconnect? Current Biology, 17, R877–R878. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2007.08.007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric InstituteColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations