Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms and Suicidality Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Youth
- 1.1k Downloads
Sexual minority youth report higher rates of depression and suicidality than do heterosexual youth. Little is known, however, about whether these disparities continue as youth transition into young adulthood. The primary goals of this study were to describe and compare trajectories of adolescent depressive symptoms and suicidality among sexual minority and heterosexual youth, examine differences in depressive symptoms and suicidality trajectories across sexual orientation subgroups, and determine whether there are gender differences in these longitudinal disparities. Four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed using latent curve modeling (N = 12,379; 53 % female). Results showed that the rates of depressive symptoms and suicidality in early adolescence were higher among sexual minority youth than among heterosexual youth, and that these disparities persisted over time as participants transitioned into young adulthood. Consistent with previous cross-sectional studies, the observed longitudinal disparities were largest for females and for bisexually-identified youth. Sexual minority youth may benefit from childhood and early adolescent prevention and intervention programs.
KeywordsSexual minority youth Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth Sexual orientation Depressive symptoms Suicidality Trajectories Latent growth curve modeling
The production of this manuscript was supported by grants awarded to the first author from the National Institute of Drug Abuse (DA030385 and DA026312). We would like to thank Stephanie Miller for her help with manuscript preparation. This research uses data from Add Health, a program project directed by Kathleen Mullan Harris and designed by J. Richard Udry, Peter S. Bearman, and Kathleen Mullan Harris at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and funded by Grant P01-HD31921 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, with cooperative funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations. Special acknowledgment is due Ronald R. Rindfuss and Barbara Entwisle for assistance in the original design. Information on how to obtain the Add Health data files is available on the Add Health website (http://www.cpc.unc.edu/addhealth). No direct support was received from Grant P01-HD31921 for this analysis.
MPM conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination and drafted the manuscript; SSD participated in the design of the study, conducted all of the analyses, drafted the Method and Results sections, JWC participated in the design of the study, supervised the data analysis and interpretation, and assisted with drafting the Results section, CMB participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript, MSF, FA, and TH participated in the design of the study and assisted with drafting components of the Introduction and Discussion. All authors read, edited, and approved the final manuscript.
- Bertolote, J. M., & Fleischmann, A. (2002). A global perspective in the epidemiology of suicide. Suicidology, 7, 6–8.Google Scholar
- Bollen, K. A., & Curran, P. J. (2006). Latent curve models: A structural equation approach. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics.Google Scholar
- Brent, D. A., Poling, K. D., & Goldstein, T. R. (2011). Treating depressed and suicidal adolescents: A clinician’s guide. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Chantala, K. (2003). Introduction to analyzing add health data. Prepared for the add health users workshop, National Institutes of health. Retrieved June 10, 2011, from http://www.coc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/files/analyze.pdf.
- Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.). (2006). Developmental psychopathology: Theory and method (2nd ed., Vol. 1). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Dekker, M. C., Ferdinand, R. F., Van Lang, N. D., Bongers, I. L., Van Der Ende, J., & Verhulst, F. C. (2007). Developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms from early childhood to late adolescence: Gender differences and adult outcome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 657–666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dermody, S. S., Marshal, M. P., Cheong, J. W., Burton, C. M., Friedman, M. S., Aranda, F., & Hughes, T. (2013). Longitudinal disparities of hazardous drinking between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals from adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. doi: 10.1007/s10964-013-9905-9.
- Friedman, M. S., Marshal, M. P., Guadamuz, T. E., Wei, C., Wong, C. F., Saewyc, E. M., et al. (2011). A meta-analysis of disparities in childhood sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, and peer victimization among sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals. American Journal of Public Health, 101, 1481–1494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Harris, K. M. (2009). The national longitudinal study of adolescent health (Add Health), Waves I & II, 1994–1996; Wave III, 2001–2002; Wave IV, 2007–2009 [machine-readable data file and documentation]. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
- Institute of Medicine. (2011). The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: Building a foundation for better understanding. Washington, DC: The National Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2010). Mplus 6.0 [Computer Software]. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Ryan, C. (2010). Engaging families to support lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: The family acceptance project. Prevention Researcher, 17, 11–13.Google Scholar
- Tourangeau, R., & Shin, H. C. (1999). Grand sample weight. Retrieved June 10, 2011, from http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/data/guides/weights.pdf.