Self-Concept Clarity Across Adolescence: Longitudinal Associations With Open Communication With Parents and Internalizing Symptoms
- 1.7k Downloads
Higher self-concept clarity is related to several adjustment indices and may be promoted by open communication with parents, while problems with self-concept clarity development could enhance internalizing problems (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) in adolescence. This longitudinal study examined linkages between self-concept clarity, adolescents’ open communication with parents, and adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms. Dutch youths (N = 323; 51.1 % girls; mean age Time 1 = 13.3 years) reported on these constructs over four consecutive annual measurements. Concurrent positive links between open communication and self-concept clarity were found at Time 1. Over time, higher levels of open communication with parents predicted higher self-concept clarity only in middle adolescence (mean age between 14 and 15 years). We also found concurrent associations between self-concept clarity and both depressive and anxiety symptoms. Longitudinally, lower self-concept clarity predicted relatively higher levels of depressive symptoms across all waves, and also higher anxiety levels from Time 1 to Time 2. Conversely, higher levels of anxiety also predicted lower levels of self-concept clarity during the first three waves. Self-concept clarity did not mediate the longitudinal associations between open communication and internalizing symptoms. This study is one of the first to investigate self-concept clarity across adolescence. It highlights the possible importance of both anxiety symptoms and communication with parents in understanding the development of a clear self-concept, and demonstrates an association between lower self-concept clarity and higher levels of later depressive and anxiety symptoms.
KeywordsAdolescence Self-concept clarity Open communication Internalizing problems
This study was supported by grants to Wim Meeus and Susan Branje from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).
M.P.A.D. conceived of the study, performed the statistical analyses, interpreted the results, and wrote the manuscript. S.B. participated in the conceiving of the study, the data analysis, the interpretation of the results and the drafting of the manuscript. L.K. helped with the statistical analyses and participated in the interpretation of the results and in the drafting of the manuscript. W.M. participated in the interpretation of the results and revised the manuscript. W.M. is also the principal investigator of the CONAMORE project and is responsible for the data collection. S.T.H. participated in the drafting of the manuscript, and S.T.H. and W.W.H. revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
- Aron, A. (2003). Self and close relationships. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 442–461). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Birmaher, B., Brent, D. A., Chiappetta, L., Bridge, J., Monga, S., & Baugher, M. (1999). Psychometric properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Scale (SCARED): A replication study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1230–1236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Birmaher, B., Khetarpal, S., Brent, D., Cully, M., Balach, L., Kaufman, J., et al. (1997). The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): Scale construction and psychometric characteristics. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 545–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
- Hill, J. P., & Holmbeck, G. N. (1986). Attachment and autonomy during adolescence. Annals of Child Development, 3, 145–189.Google Scholar
- Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2003). Parenting of adolescents: Action or reaction? In A. Booth & A. C. Crouter (Eds.), Children’s influence on family dynamics: The neglected side of family relationships (pp. 121–151). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Lee-Flynn, S. C., Pomaki, G., DeLongis, A., Biesanz, J. C., & Puterman, E. (2011). Daily cognitive appraisals, daily affect, and long-term depressive symptoms: The role of self-esteem and self-concept clarity in the stress process. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 255–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Meeus, W. H. J., Akse, J., Branje, S. J. T., Ter Bogt, T. F. M., Crommelin, P. M., Delsing, M. J., et al. (2006). Codebook of the research project conflict and management of relationships (CONAMORE). Unpublished manuscript. Utrecht, The Netherlands: Utrecht University.Google Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus user’s guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Pearsall Smith, L. (1931). Age and Death. Afterthoughts. London, England: Constable.Google Scholar
- Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In A. von Eye & C. C. Clogg (Eds.), Latent variables analysis: Applications for developmental research (pp. 399–419). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Tilton-Weaver, L., & Marshall, S. (2008). Adolescents’ agency in information management. In M. Kerr, H. Stattin, & R. C. M. E. Engels (Eds.), What can parents do? New insights into the role of parents in adolescent problem behavior. Chichester, West Sussex, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Van Eijck, F. E. A. M., Branje, S. J. T., Hale, W. W., III, & Meeus, W. H. J. (2012). Longitudinal associations between perceived parent–adolescent attachment relationship quality and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 871–883.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Widaman, K. F. (2006). III. Missing data: What to do with or without them. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 71, 42–64.Google Scholar
- Youniss, J., & Smollar, J. (1985). Adolescent relations with mothers, fathers, and friends. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar