Advertisement

Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 39, Issue 11, pp 1368–1386 | Cite as

Participating in Sport and Music Activities in Adolescence: The Role of Activity Participation and Motivational Beliefs During Elementary School

  • Sandra D. Simpkins
  • Andrea E. Vest
  • Jennifer N. Becnel
Empirical Research

Abstract

This investigation examined the precursors of adolescents’ participation in sport and music activities in the United States by testing a developmental model across 7 years. Data were drawn from youth questionnaires in the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 594). Findings suggest that patterns of participation across a 3-year period in elementary school predict adolescents’ participation through their motivational beliefs. Specifically, children who participated in an activity, children who participated consistently across multiple years, and children who were highly active had higher adolescent motivational beliefs 4 years later than their peers. These motivational beliefs, in turn, positively predicted adolescents’ participation 1 year later. Cross-domain analyses suggest that children typically maintain their orientation toward sports and music (e.g., high music-low sport orientation, not oriented toward either domain) as they age. These findings highlight the consistency in children’s leisure pursuits and interests from childhood through adolescence.

Keywords

Out-of-school activities Activity participation Self-concept Interest Motivation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by Grant HD17553 from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development to Jacquelynne Eccles, Allan Wigfield, Phyllis Blumenfeld, and Rena Harold, Grant 0089972 from the National Science Foundation to Jacquelynne Eccles and Pamela Davis-Kean, and grants from the MacArthur Network on Successful Pathways through Middle Childhood to Eccles. We would like to thank the principals, teachers, students, and parents of the cooperating school districts for their participation in this project. We would also like to thank the following people for their work on the project: Amy Arbreton, Phyllis Blumenfeld, Carol Freedman-Doan, Rena Harold, Janis Jacobs, Toby Jayaratne, Mina Vida, Allan Wigfield, and Kwang Suk Yoon.

References

  1. Adderley, C., Kennedy, M., & Berz, W. (2003). “A home away from home”: The world of the high school music classroom. Journal of Research in Music Education, 51, 190–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barber, B. L., Eccles, J. S., & Stone, M. R. (2001). Whatever happened to the jock, the brain and the princess? Young adult pathways linked to adolescent activity involvement and social identity. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16, 429–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bergman, L. R., & El-Khouri, B. M. (2002). SLEIPNER: A statistical package for pattern-oriented analyses. Version 2.1 [Manual]. Stockholm: Stockholm University, Department of Psychology.Google Scholar
  4. Bergman, L. R., Magnusson, D., & El-Khouri, B. M. (2003). Studying individual development in an interindividual context: A person-oriented approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Brophy, J. (1999). Toward a model of the value aspects of motivation in education: Developing appreciation for particular learning domains and activities. Educational Psychologist, 34, 75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruininks, V. L., & Bruininks, R. H. (1977). Motor proficiency of learning disabled and nondisabled students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 44, 1131–1137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Darling, N., Caldwell, L. L., & Smith, R. (2005). Participation in school-based extracurricular activities and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Leisure Research, 37, 51–76.Google Scholar
  8. Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 487–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (1995). The structure of adolescents’ achievement task values expectancy-related beliefs. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 215–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Harold, R., & Blumenfeld, P. (1993). Age and gender differences in children’s achievement self perceptions during the elementary school years. Child Development, 64, 830–847.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Evans, E. M., Schweingruber, H., & Stevenson, H. W. (2002). Gender differences in interest and knowledge acquisition: The United States, Taiwan, and Japan. Sex Roles, 47, 153–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fredricks, J. A., Alfed-Liro, C. J., Hruda, L. Z., Eccles, J. S., Patrick, H., & Ryan, A. M. (2002). A qualitative exploration of adolescents’ commitment to athletics and the arts. Journal of Adolescent Research, 17, 68–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2005a). Family socialization, gender, motivation, and competitive sports involvement. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 27, 3–31.Google Scholar
  14. Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2005b). Developmental benefits of extracurricular involvement: Do peer characteristics mediate the link between activities and youth outcomes? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 507–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Is extracurricular participation associated with beneficial outcomes? Concurrent and longitudinal relations. Developmental Psychology, 42, 698–713.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Fuligni, A. J. (2001). Family obligation and the academic motivation of adolescents from Asian, Latin American, and European backgrounds. In A. Fuligni (Ed.), Family obligation and assistance during adolescence: Contextual variations and developmental implication (pp. 61–75). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  17. Gardner, M., Roth, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2008). Adolescents’ participation in organized activities and developmental success 2 and 8 years after high school: Do sponsorship, duration and intensity matter? Developmental Psychology, 44, 814–830.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gould, D., & Dieffenbach, K. (1999). Psychological issues in youth sports: Competitive anxiety, overtraining, and burnout. In R. M. Malina (Ed.), Organized sport in the lives of children and adolescents. Michigan Youth Sports Institute Conference Proceedings, 23–26 May.Google Scholar
  19. Hansen, D. M., Larson, R. W., & Dworkin, J. B. (2003). What adolescents learn in organized youth activities: A survey of self-reported developmental experiences. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13, 25–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harter, S. (2006). The self. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol 3, social, emotional and personality development (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  21. Hidi, S., & Renninger, K. A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 41, 111–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jacobs, J. E., Lanza, S., Osgood, D. W., Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Changes in children’s self-competence and values: Gender and domain differences across grades one through twelve. Child Development, 73, 509–527.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Larson, R. W. (2000). Toward a psychology of positive youth development. American Psychologist, 55, 170–183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Larson, R. W., Jarrett, R., Hansen, M., Pearce, N., Sullivan, P., Walker, K., et al. (2004). Organized youth activities as contexts for positive development. In P. A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 540–560). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  26. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 99–128.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Mahoney, J. L., Cairns, B. D., & Farmer, T. W. (2003). Promoting interpersonal competence and educational success through extracurricular activity participation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 409–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mahoney, J. L., Larson, R. W., Eccles, J. S., & Lord, H. (2005). Organized activities as developmental contexts for children and adolescents. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson, & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 3–22). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Marsh, H. W., Gerlach, E., Trautwein, U., Ludtke, O., & Brettschneider, W. (2007). Longitudinal study of preadolescent sport self-concept and performance: Reciprocal effects and causal ordering. Child Development, 78, 1640–1656.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Marsh, H. W., Walker, R., & Debus, R. (1991). Subject-specific components of academic self-concept and self-efficacy. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 16, 331–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marsh, H. W., & Yeung, A. S. (1996). The distinctiveness of affects in specific school subjects: An application of confirmatory factor analysis with the national educational longitudinal study of 1988. American Education Research Journal, 33, 665–689.Google Scholar
  32. North, A. C., Hargreaves, D. J., & O’Neill, S. A. (2000). The importance of music to adolescents. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 255–272.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. O’Neill, S. A. (2006). Positive youth musical engagement. In G. E. McPherson (Ed.), The child as a musician: A handbook of musical development (pp. 461–474). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. O’Neill, S. A., & Sloboda, J. A. (1997). The effects of failure on children’s ability to perform a musical test. Psychology of Music, 25, 18–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Peck, S. C., Roeser, R. W., Zarrett, N., & Eccles, J. S. (2008). Exploring the roles of extracurricular quantity and quality in the educational resilience of vulnerable adolescents: Variable- and person-centered approaches. Journal of Social Issues, 64, 135–155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Pedersen, S., & Seidman, E. (2005). Context and correlates of out-of-school activity participation among low-income urban adolescents. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson, & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after school and community programs (pp. 85–109). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  37. Persson, A., Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2007). Staying in or moving away from structured activities: Explanations involving parents and peers. Developmental Psychology, 43, 197–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Roberts, G. C., Kleiber, D. A., & Duda, J. L. (1981). An analysis of motivation in children’s sport: The role of perceived competence in participation. Journal of Sport Psychology, 3, 206–216.Google Scholar
  39. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology, 49, 182–185.Google Scholar
  40. Sabiston, C. M., & Crocker, P. R. E. (2008). Exploring self-perceptions and social influences as correlates of adolescent leisure-time physical activity. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 30, 3–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Savage, S. L., & Gauvain, M. (1998). Parental beliefs and children’s everyday planning in European–American and Latino families. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 319, 319–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147–177.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Shann, M. H. (2001). Students’ use of time outside of school: A case for after school programs for urban middle school youth. The Urban Review, 33, 339–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Simpkins, S. D., Davis-Kean, P. E., & Eccles, J. S. (2006a). Math and science motivation: A longitudinal examination of the links between choices and beliefs. Developmental Psychology, 42, 70–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Simpkins, S. D., Fredricks, J. A., Davis-Kean, P. E., & Eccles, J. S. (2006b). Healthy minds, healthy habits: The influence of activity involvement in middle childhood. In A. C. Huston & M. N. Ripke (Eds.), Developmental contexts in middle childhood: Bridges to adolescence and adulthood (pp. 283–302). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Simpkins, S. D., Little, P. M. D., & Weiss, H. D. (2004). Understanding and measuring attendance in out-of-school time programs. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project.Google Scholar
  47. Smith, R. E. (1986). Toward a cognitive-affect model of burnout. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8, 36–50.Google Scholar
  48. Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Cumming, S. P. (2007). Effects of a motivational climate intervention for coaches on young athletes’ sport performance anxiety. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29, 39–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Sussman, S., Pokhrel, P., Ashmore, R. D., & Brown, B. B. (2007). Adolescent peer group identification and characteristics: A review of the literature. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 1602–1627.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2005). After-school programs and activities survey of the 2005 national household education surveys program. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/afterschool/XLS/table_14a.xls.
  51. Valentine, J. C., DuBois, D. L., & Cooper, H. (2004). The relation between self-beliefs and academic achievement: A meta-analytic review. Educational Psychologist, 39, 111–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., Schiefele, U., Roeser, R., & Davis-Kean, P. (2006). Development of achievement motivation. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3, social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 933–1002). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra D. Simpkins
    • 1
  • Andrea E. Vest
    • 1
  • Jennifer N. Becnel
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Social and Family DynamicsArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations