Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents’ Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons Across Sex and Ethnic Groups
- 421 Downloads
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth graders collected from three sites (Birmingham, AL, Houston, TX, and Los Angeles, CA) were used in the analyses. Simultaneous group structural equation modeling supported the invariance of parenting-early adolescent outcomes across sex and ethnic groups. Parental monitoring and parental norms were relatively robust predictors of early-adolescent externalizing problems and victimization, and to a lesser extent, of internalizing problems. A maternal nurturance by parental monitoring interaction was statistically significant for all outcome behaviors, indicating that higher monitoring in conjunction with higher maternal nurturance was associated with lower levels of early-adolescent problem behaviors. The findings suggest that core parenting factors such as nurturance, monitoring, and normative expectations for early adolescent problem behaviors may serve as a foundation for parenting components of multi-component intervention studies.
KeywordsParenting Ethnic groups Externalizing problems Victimization
This research was supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Cooperative Agreement Numbers CCU409679, CCU609653, and CCU915773. Special thanks are extended to Dr. Marc Elliott of the RAND Corporation for his comments on earlier versions of this manuscript regarding the sampling design and statistical analyses.
- Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Barnes, G. M., & Windle, M. (1987). Family factors in adolescent alcohol and drug abuse. Paediatrician, 14, 13–18.Google Scholar
- Goldstein, S. E., Davis-Kean, P. E., & Eccles, J. S. (2005). Parents, peers, and problem behavior: A longitudinal investigation on the impact of relationship perceptions and characteristics on the development of adolescent problem behavior. Developmental Psychology, 41, 401–413. doi: 10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.1991.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hill, J. P., & Lynch, M. E. (1983). The intensification of gender-related role expectations during early adolescence. In J. Brooks-Gunn & A. C. Petersen (Eds.), Girls at puberty: Biological and psychosocial perspectives (pp. 201–228). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
- Loehlin, J. C. (1998). Latent variable models: An introduction to factor, path, and structural equation analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. T., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indices and dangers in overgeneralizing the Hu and Bentler’s 1999 findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 320–341. doi: 10.1207/s15328007sem1103_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (1998–2004). Mplus user’s guide. Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen.Google Scholar
- Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2094–2100. doi: 10.1001/jama.285.16.2094.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ribbe, D. (1996). Psychometric review of traumatic event screening instrument for children (TESI-C). In B. H. Stamm (Ed.), Measurement of stress, trauma, and adaptation (pp. 386–387). Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press.Google Scholar
- SAS. (2004). SAS version 9.0. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc.Google Scholar
- Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Paper number 260 from UCLA Statistics series at http://www.stat.ucla.papers/.
- SPSS. (2004). SPSS for windows, version 13.0. Chicago, IL: SPSS, Inc.Google Scholar
- Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S., Darling, N., Mounts, N. S., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1994). Over-time changes in adjustment and competence among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Development, 65, 754–770. doi: 10.2307/1131416.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Szapocznik, J., Prado, G., Burlew, A. K., Williams, R. A., & Santisteban, D. A. (2007). Drug abuse in African-American and Hispanic adolescents: Culture, development, and behavior. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 77–105. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Veenstra, R., Lendenberg, S., Oldehinkel, A. J., DeWinter, A. F., Verhulst, F. C., & Ormel, J. (2005). Bullying and victimization in elementary schools: A comparison of bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved preadolescents. Developmental Psychology, 41, 672–682. doi: 10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.522.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Windle, M., Grunbaum, J. A., Elliott, M., Tortolero, S. R., Berry, S., Gilliland, J., et al. (2004). Healthy passages: A multilevel, multimethod longitudinal study of adolescent health. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27, 164–172. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2004.04.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar