Parents and Peers as Social Influences to Deter Antisocial Behavior
- 570 Downloads
Growth curve analyses were used to investigate parents’ and peers’ influence on adolescents’ choice to abstain from antisocial behavior in a community-based sample of 416 early adolescents living in the Southeastern United States. Participants were primarily European American (91%) and 51% were girls. Both parents and peers were important influences on the choice to abstain from antisocial behavior. Over the four-year period adolescents relied increasingly on parents as influences and relied less on peers as influences to deter antisocial behavior. Significant gender differences emerged and suggested that female adolescents relied more on social influences than did male adolescents but that as time progressed male adolescents increased the rate at which they relied on peers. Higher family income was associated with choosing peers as a social influence at wave 1, but no other significant income associations were found. Understanding influences on adolescents’ abstinence choices is important for preventing antisocial behavior.
KeywordsParental influence Peer influence Adolescence Antisocial behavior Abstinence
This research was supported by a grant from The National Institute of Mental Health, R01-MH59248. I thank the staff of the Family Life Project for their unending contributions to this work and the youth, parents, teachers, and school administrators who made this research possible.
- Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
- Allen, J. P., Kuperminc, G. P., & Moore, C. M. (1997). Developmental approaches to understanding adolescent deviance. In S. S. Luthar, J. A. Burack, D. Cicchetti, & J. Weisz (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on risk and disorder (pp. 548–567). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Azmitia, M., Kamprath, N., & Linnet, J. (1998). Intimacy and conflict: The dynamics of boys’ and girls’ friendships during middle childhood and early adolescence. In L. Meyer, H. Park, M. Grnot-Scheyer, I. Schwartz, & B. Harry (Eds.), Making friends: The influences of culture and development (pp. 171–189). Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Company.Google Scholar
- Barber, B. K. (1994). Social Control Measure. Unpublished measure, Brigham Young University.Google Scholar
- Blos, P. (1962). On adolescence: A psychoanalytic interpretation. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Brody, G. H., McBride-Murry, V., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., McNair, L., Brown, A. C., et al. (2006). The strong African American Families Program: Prevention of youths’ high-risk behavior and a test of a model of change. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 1–11. doi: 10.1037/0893-3184.108.40.206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brown, T. L., & Zimmerman, R. S. (2004). Are adolescents accurate reporters of their alcohol use? Individual Differences Research, 2, 17–25.Google Scholar
- Call, K. T., & Mortimer, J. T. (2001). Arenas of comfort in adolescence: A study in context. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Collins, W. A., & Roisman, G. I. (2006). The influence of family and peer relationships in the development of competence during adolescence. In A. Clarke-Stewart & J. Dunn (Eds.), Families count: Effects on child and adolescent development (pp. 79–103). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Lansford, J. E., Miller-Johnson, S., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Toward a dynamic developmental model of the role of parents and peers in early onset substance use. In A. Clarke-Stewart & J. Dunn (Eds.), Families count: Effects on child and adolescent development (pp. 104–135). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
- Finkelstein, N. (1997). The relational model. CSAP Technical Report-7. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health & Human Services.Google Scholar
- Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Harris, J. R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Henkel, R. E. (1976). Tests of significance. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Hoffman, L. W. (2003). Methodological issues in studies of SES, parenting, and child development. In M. H. Bornstein & R. H. Bradley (Eds.), Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development (pp. 125–144). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Jacobs, J. E., & Johnston, K. E. (2005). Everyone else is doing it: Relations between bias in base-rate estimates and involvement in deviant behaviors. In J. E. Jacobs & P. A. Klaczynski (Eds.), The development of judgment and decision making in children and adolescents (pp. 157–179). Mahwaw, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2007). Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2006. Volume I: Secondary school students (NIH Publication No. 07-6205, pp. 699). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
- Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). Moving on up: Neighborhood effects on children and families. In M. H. Bornstein & R. H. Bradley (Eds.), Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development (pp. 209–230). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- National Center for Educational Statistics. (2003). T144. Percentage of students in grades 9 through 12 who reported experience with drugs and violence. Retrieved April 9, 2007 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d05/tables/dt05_144.asp.
- Pilgrim, C., Luo, Q., Urberg, K. A., & Fang, X. (1999). Influence of peers, parents, and individual characteristics on adolescent drug use in two cultures. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45, 85–105.Google Scholar
- Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical Linear Models. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., & Wallace, L. E. (2004). Families, delinquency and crime: Linking society’s most basic institution to antisocial behavior. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Company.Google Scholar
- U.S. Census Bureau (2000). PCT148A. Sex by educational attainment for the population 25 years and over (white alone). Retrieved September 29, 2004 from http://factfinder.census.gov, Summary File 4.
- U.S. Census Bureau (2000). PCT40. Median family income in 1999 (dollars) by family type by presence of own children under 18 years. Retrieved September 3, 2005 from http://factfinder.census.gov, Summary File 3.
- Van Lier, P. A., Vitaro, F., Wanner, B., Vuijk, P., & Crijen, A. M. (2005). Gender differences in developmental links among antisocial behavior, friends’ antisocial behavior, and peer rejection in childhood: Results from two cultures. Child Development, 76, 841–855. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00881.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Collins, A. W. (2003). Autonomy development during adolescence. In G. R. Adams & M. D. Berzonsky (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of adolescence (pp. 175–204). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar