Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 36, Issue 3, pp 325–336 | Cite as

Digital Game Playing and Direct and Indirect Aggression in Early Adolescence: The Roles of Age, Social Intelligence, and Parent-Child Communication

  • Marjut Wallenius
  • Raija-Leena Punamäki
  • Arja Rimpelä
Original Paper


The roles of age, social intelligence and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game playing and direct and indirect aggression were examined in 478 Finnish 10- and 13-year-old schoolchildren based on self-reports. The results confirmed that digital game violence was directly associated with direct aggression, especially at age 10, but only among boys. The moderating role of social intelligence was substantiated among older boys: game violence was associated with indirect aggression among those with high level of social intelligence. Further, as hypothesized, digital game playing was associated with direct aggression especially when parent-child communication was poor, but only among boys. Our findings emphasize the importance of individual and situational factors as moderators of the link between game violence and aggression.


Digital game violence Children and adolescents Social intelligence Parent-child communication Direct and indirect aggression 



This study was supported by the grants from the Academy of Finland (201669), the Information Society Institute of the University of Tampere and the Tampere University of Technology (16-01), and the Competitive research funding of the Pirkanmaa Hospital District (9G211). We are grateful to the schools for cooperation and to the children and adolescents who participated in the study. We thank Minna Rantanen, Riikka Haakana, Marja Vajaranta, Marjatta Radecki, Susanna Rainio, Lasse Pere, and Tomi Lintonen for assistance in data collection and Marjatta Radecki and Hanna Hölttä for coding the data. We also thank Mrs. Marja Vajaranta, University of Tampere, for revising the language.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marjut Wallenius
    • 1
  • Raija-Leena Punamäki
    • 2
  • Arja Rimpelä
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, University of Tampere and Research Unit of Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere University HospitalUniversity of TampereTampereFinland
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of TampereTampereFinland
  3. 3.Tampere School of Public HealthUniversity of TampereTampereFinland

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