Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 726–737 | Cite as

Alcohol Use, Outcome Expectancies, and HIV Risk Status among American Indian Youth: A Latent Growth Curve Model with Parallel Processes

  • Christina M. Mitchell
  • Janette Beals
  • Carol E. Kaufman
  • The Pathways of Choice and Healthy Ways Project Team
Original Paper


Alcohol use is cited as a risk factor for exposure to HIV infection through risky sexual behavior, especially among adolescents. From Social Cognitive Theory, positive outcome expectancies about the use of alcohol have often been presented as a critical aspect of alcohol use. Yet little is known about how they might be related to different aspects of HIV risk. Using latent growth curve modeling with data from 292 American Indian youth across seven years, both alcohol use and positive expectancies increased significantly; a lower-risk group showed significantly slower increases in both. Changes in alcohol use and outcome expectancies were significantly interrelated, providing support for reciprocal influence between the two constructs. Positive alcohol outcome expectancies may provide a preventive intervention point worthy of further consideration as influencing alcohol use and lowering HIV sexual risk among adolescents.


Alcohol use Outcome expectancies HIV risk American Indian Latent growth curve modeling 



The Pathways of Choice and Healthy Ways Projects would not have been possible without the significant contributions of many people. The following interviewers, computer/data management and administrative staff supplied energy and enthusiasm for an often difficult job: Phyllis Brewer, Anna Clifford, Laticia Decory, Marvine Douville, Karen DuBray, Danny Ecoffy, Mary I’Atala, Kim Jack, Alvin Johnson, Mary Little Bear, Mary Lame, Denise Lee, Anthony Long Soldier, Alberta McCrary, Frank Means, Lisa Merrival, Robert Moran, Sandra Pettigrew, Rhiannon Shangreau, Tina Standing Soldier, Michelle Spotted Elk, Herman Tall, Jessica Tobacco, Tricia Tyon, Helen Wilson, Intriga Wounded Head, Michelle Yankton, and Sheila Young. We would also like to acknowledge the contributions of the Healthy Ways National Advisory Committee: Sevgi O. Aral, Paul D. Bouey, Dedra Buchwald, Terry Friend, Pamina M. Gorbach, Randy Her Many Horses, King K. Holmes, Bonnie Holy Rock, Alberta Iron Cloud Miller, Andrew Catt-Iron Shell, Robert J. Magnani, Rachel Pacheco, John J. Potterat, Karen S. Red Star, Dorothy A. Rhoades, Marion Sorace, Tim Ryschon, Gayla J. Twiss, Nancy L. Vande Brake, Edith Welty, and Tom Welty. We would also like to acknowledge the contributions of the Voices of Indian Teens Scientific Advisory Group: Fred Beauvais, Robert Roberts, Joseph Trimble, and Jay Turner. Finally, we thank the participants who so generously answered all the questions asked of them.

The study was supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development grant R01 HD33275 (Mitchell, PI), a supplement to HD33275 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism grant R01 AA08474 (Manson, PI). Production of this manuscript was supported in part by the National Institute of Mental Health K02 MH02049 (Mitchell, PI).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christina M. Mitchell
    • 1
  • Janette Beals
    • 1
  • Carol E. Kaufman
    • 1
  • The Pathways of Choice and Healthy Ways Project Team
  1. 1.University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences CenterAuroraUSA

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