Pubertal Maturation and African American Children’s Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms
- 525 Downloads
The association of pubertal maturation with internalizing and externalizing symptoms was examined with a sample of 867 African-American 10 – 12-year-old children. Children reported their pubertal development status and timing using a self-report questionnaire, and symptoms were assessed through diagnostic interviews with the children and their primary caregivers. Pubertal status and timing were significantly associated with children's reports of the internalizing symptoms of social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and major depression and with the externalizing symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, attention deficit disorder, and conduct disorder. Pubertal development also was associated with caregivers’ reports of children's externalizing symptoms. The pubertal transition was associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms in both boys and girls.
KEY WORDS:puberty externalizing and internalizing symptoms African-American
This research was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (MH48165, MH62669) and the Center for Disease Control (029136-02). Additional funding for this project was provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, and the Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station (Project #3320). Writing of this manuscript was also supported by the California Agriculture Experiment Station (CA-D*-HCD-6092-H).
- Connolly, S. D., Paikoff, R. L., and Buchanan, C. M. (1996). Puberty: The interplay of biological and psychosocial processes in adolescence. In Adams, G. R., Montemayor, R., and Gullotta, T. P. (eds.), Psychosocial Development During Adolescence. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 259–299.Google Scholar
- Eichorn, D. (1975). Asynchonization in adolescent development. In Dragastin,.S. E. and Elder, G. H., Jr. (eds.), Adolescence in the life cycle: Psychological change and the social context. Halsted, New York.Google Scholar
- Graber, J. A., Petersen, A., and Brooks-Gunn, J. (1996). Pubertal processes: Methods, measures, and models. In Graber, J. A., Brooks-Gunn J., and Petersen, A. (eds.), Transitions through Adolescence: Interpersonal Domains and Context. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 23–53.Google Scholar
- Jones, M. C., and Bayley, N. (1971). Physical maturing among boys as related to behavior. In Jones, M. C., Bayley, N., MacFarlane, J. W., and Honzik, M. P. (eds.), The Course of Human Development. Xeroz College Publishing, Waltham, MA, pp. 252–257.Google Scholar
- Jones, M. C., and Mussen, P. H. (1957). Self-conceptions, motivations, and interpersonal attitudes of early- and late-maturing girls. Child Dev. 29: 491–501.Google Scholar
- Magnusson, D. (1988). Individual Development from an Interactional Perspective. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
- Petersen, A. C., and Taylor, B. (1980). The biological approach to adolescence. In Adelson,.J. (ed.), Handbook of Adolescent Psychology. Wiley, New York, pp. 117–155.Google Scholar
- Rose, R. J., Dick, D. M., Viken, R. J., Pulkinnen, L., and Kaprio, J. (2001) Drinking or astaining at age 14? A genetic epidemiological study. Alcohol: Clin. Exp.. Res. 30: 385–399.Google Scholar
- Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Piacentini, J., Conners, C. K., Schwab-Stone, M., Cohen, P., Davies, M., and Reigier, D. (1993). The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Revised Version (DISC-R). I. Preparation, field testing, inter-rater reliability and acceptability. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatr. 32: 643–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar