Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 379–387 | Cite as

Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use During Adolescence

  • Kelly N. Graves
  • Maria E. Fernandez
  • Terri L. Shelton
  • James M. Frabutt
  • Amanda P. Williford


The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge base of adolescent substance use by examining the influences of risk and protective factors for specific substance use, namely alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Participants included 271 adolescents and their primary caregivers referred for mental health services across North Carolina. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions showed that the relative influences of risk and protective factors differed depending on the target substance in some cases. History of parental felony predicted use of all 3 substances, although the direction of association was substance specific. Parental behavioral control (how families express and maintain standards of behavior) was predictive only of cigarette and marijuana use, not alcohol use. The different links among risk factors, protective factors, and specific substance use are discussed, and recommendations for both mental health and substance use professionals are offered.

Key Words

adolescence substance use drug use marijuana cigarettes alcohol 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kelly N. Graves
    • 1
  • Maria E. Fernandez
    • 2
  • Terri L. Shelton
    • 3
  • James M. Frabutt
    • 4
  • Amanda P. Williford
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of North CarolinaGreensboro
  2. 2.Division of Mental HealthDevelopmental Disabilities, and Substance Abuse ServicesUSA
  3. 3.Center for Youth, Family, and Community PartnershipsUniversity of North CarolinaGreensboro
  4. 4.Center for Youth, Family, and Community PartnershipsUniversity of North CarolinaGreensboro
  5. 5.Center for Youth, Family, and Community PartnershipsUniversity of North CarolinaGreensboro

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