University patenting: a comparison of 300 leading universities worldwide
- 992 Downloads
Despite a worldwide increase in university patenting, empirical studies have largely focused on analyzing university patenting in individual countries and regions. We provide analyses from an international perspective, examining patents at the top 300 universities worldwide. By providing a patent ranking system and an analysis of the determinants of university patenting, we enable an international comparison not only between different countries but also between universities within countries. A ranking of the top-patenting universities shows a huge predominance of US universities: 18 of the top 25 universities are located in the US, with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology being ranked first. Our results show that the propensity to apply for patents is very high among US and Asian universities, while European universities lag behind. In addition to the home country, further determinants of university patenting are the quantity of the universities’ publications and a technological focus in areas such as chemistry and mechanical engineering. However, the size of a university and the quality of its publications are not found to be significant determinants.
KeywordsUniversity patenting Patents Ranking Publishing and patenting
JEL ClassificationO32 O34 O53 O57 I23
- Crespi, G.A., Geuna, A., & Verspagen, B. (2006). University IPRs and knowledge transfer. Is the IPR ownership model more efficient? SPRU Electronic Working Paper Series, No. 154, University of Sussex.Google Scholar
- Fisch, C., Block, J., Sandner, P. (2014). Chinese university patents: Quantity, quality, and the role of subsidy programs. SSRN Working Paper.Google Scholar
- Hinze, S., Reiß, T., & Schmoch, U. (1997). Statistical analysis on the distance between fields of technology. Report for European Commission TSER Project.Google Scholar
- Mowery, D. C., & Sampat, B. N. (2005b). Universities in national innovation systems. In J. Fagerberg, D. C. Mowery, & R. R. Nelson (Eds.), The oxford handbook of innovation (pp. 209–239). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- National Science Foundation. (2013). Higher education research and development: Fiscal year 2011. http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf13325/pdf/nsf13325.pdf. Accessed April 23, 2014.
- Shanghai Jiao Tong University. (2014). Academic ranking of world universities. http://www.shanghairanking.com/ARWU2013.html. Accessed April 23, 2014.
- University of California (2012). Technology Transfer Annual Report 2011. http://ucop.edu/innovation-alliances-services/_files/ott/genresources/documents/IASRptFY11.pdf. Accessed April 23, 2014.
- Wu, W., & Zhou, Y. (2012). The third mission stalled? Universities in China’s technological progress. Journal of Technology Transfer, 37, 812–827.Google Scholar
- Zucker, L. G., Darby, M. R., & Brewer, M. B. (1998). Intellectual human capital and the birth of U.S. biotechnology enterprises. The American Economic Review, 88, 290–306.Google Scholar