Scientists’ Participation in University Research Centers: What are the Gender Differences?
University-affiliated multidisciplinary research centers have grown in importance in academia. Most research to-date has focused on these centers from an institutional perspective, with recent work only beginning to explore the ways in which such centers affect the development of academic careers. Hence, little is known about how scientists who are center-affiliated differ from those who are not affiliated. Clearly, both selection and influence effects may be expected to operate in terms of research productivity, timing, and resources. A further puzzle is how center affiliation may differ between male and female scientists. In this study, we use a new, nationally representative dataset of scientists and engineers working in Carnegie Research Extensive universities to develop an understanding of how center-affiliated scientists differ from exclusively department-based academic scientists and engineers, and investigate the extent to which gender moderates the effects of centers. As expected, our national sample shows that women are younger, whiter, less likely to be tenured, and at a lower rank than their male colleagues. We find that women are as likely to join centers as men, and do so at a similar stage in their career. Most of the male–female differences observed in disciplinary settings are sustained in centers, but women appear to have greater research equality in them (compared to the departmental setting). In particular, men and women in centers spend the same amount of time writing grant proposals, conducting both grant-supported and unfunded research, and administering grants. This suggests that centers may constitute an institutional context in which some aspects of gender equity in science may be achieved.
KeywordsAcademic Career Departmental Setting Gender Equity Academic Scientist Center Affiliation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Allison, P.D., Scott Long, J. 1990‘Departmental Effects on Scientific Productivity’American Sociological Review55469478Google Scholar
- Barber, L.A. 1995‘U.S. Women in Science and Engineering, 1960–1990: Progress Toward Equity?’The Journal of Higher Education66213234Google Scholar
- Boardman, P.C. and B. Bozeman, Forthcoming, ‘Implementing a “Bottom-Up,” Multi-Sector Research Collaboration: The Case of Texas Air Quality Collaboration,’ Economics of Innovation and New Technology.Google Scholar
- Bozeman, B. and P.C. Boardman, 2003, ‘Managing the New Multipurpose, Multidiscipline University Research Centers: Institutional Innovation in the Academic Community,’ Report prepared for the Transforming Organizations Series. IBM Center for the Business of Government.Google Scholar
- Carnegie Foundation, 2000, Classification of Higher Education http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/Classification/index.htm.
- Cohen, W., Florida, R., Goe, W.R. 1994University–Industry Research CentersCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburgh, PAGoogle Scholar
- Cohen, W.M., Florida, R., Randazzese, L.P., Walsh, J. 1998Industry and the Academy: Uneasy Partners in the Cause of Technological AdvanceRoger, Noll eds. Challenges to Research UniversitiesBrookings Institution PressWashington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Cole, J.R. 1979Fair Science: Women in the Scientific CommunityUniversity of Chicago PressChicagoGoogle Scholar
- Cole, J., Cole, S. 1973Social Stratification in ScienceUniversity of Chicago PressChicagoGoogle Scholar
- Corley, E., B. Bozeman, and M. Gaughan, 2003, ‘Evaluating the Impacts of Grants on Women Scientists’ Careers: The Curriculum Vita as a Tool for Research Assessment’, in P. Shapira and S. Kuhlmann (eds.), Learning from Science and Technology Policy Evaluation. Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Crow, M., Bozeman, B. 1998Limited by Design: R& D Laboratories in the U.S. National Innovation SystemColumbia University PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
- Fox, M.F., et al. 1995Women and Scientific CareersJasanoff, S. eds. Handbook of Science and Technology StudiesSageThousand Oaks205223Google Scholar
- Fox, M.F., (1991), ‘Gender, Environmental Milieu, and Productivity in Science,’ in H. Zuckerman, J. Cole and J. Bruer, (eds.), The Outer Circle: Women in the Scientific Community.Google Scholar
- Fox, M.F., Ferri, V.C. 1992‘Women, Men, and their Attribution for Success in Academe’Social Psychology Quarterly55257271Google Scholar
- Gaughan, M., Bozeman, B. 2002‘Impacts of Research Grants and Institutional Change on Scientists’ Careers: Comparing Center Funding with “Small Science” Grants’Research Evaluation111726Google Scholar
- Jaffe, A. 1989‘Real Effects of Academic Research’American Economic Review79957970Google Scholar
- Long, J.S., Allison, P., McGinnis, R. 1993‘Rank Advancement in Academic Careers: Sex Differences and the Effects of Productivity’American Sociological Review44816830Google Scholar
- Long, J.S., Fox, M.F. 1995‘Scientific Careers: Universalism and Particularism’Annual Review of Sociology214571Google Scholar
- Long, J.S., McGinnis, R. 1991‘Organizational Contexts and Scientific Productivity’American Sociological Review46422442Google Scholar
- Mowery, D.C. 1995The Boundaries of the U.S. Firm in R&DLamoureaux, N.R.Raff, D.M.G. eds. Coordination and Information: Historical Perspectives on the Organization of EnterpriseUniversity of Chicago Press for NBERChicagoGoogle Scholar
- National Research Council, 2001, From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- National Research Council1987Women: Their Under-representation and Career Differentials in Science and EngineeringNational Research CouncilWashington, DCGoogle Scholar
- National Science Foundation, 2005, The I/UCRC Program. Retrieved March 22, 2005, from http://www.nsf.gov/eng/iucrc/program.jsp .
- National Science Foundation, 2000, Survey of Earned Doctorates. NSF/Division of Science Resources Statistics. http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/nsf03310/start.htm.
- Rees, J. 1989‘Industry Experience with Technology Research Centers’University of North Carolina at GreensboroGreensboro, NCReport to Economic Development Administration, EDA Project No. 99-7-13675.Google Scholar
- Winship, C., Radbill, L. 1994‘Sampling Weights and Regression Analysis’Sociological Methods & Research23230257Google Scholar
- Xie, Yu, Shauman, K.A. 2003Women in Science: Career Processes and OutcomesHarvard University PressCambridgeGoogle Scholar