Journal of Mathematical Sciences

, Volume 156, Issue 2, pp 351–358 | Cite as

Balanced words and dynamical systems



This article is devoted to the description of all nonperiodic balanced words with n different letters. A superword W is called balanced if the numbers of equal letters in any two of its factors (subwords) u 1 and u 2 of equal length differ by at most 1. Balanced words are one of the possible generalizations of Sturmian words. We give a geometric interpretation of nonperiodic balanced sequences over an n-letter alphabet.


Blue Color Regular Polygon Symbolic Dynamic Equivalence Theorem Antipodal Point 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Supplementary Education “Distant Learning”MoscowRussia

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