TechCheck: Development and Validation of an Unplugged Assessment of Computational Thinking in Early Childhood Education


There is a need for developmentally appropriate Computational Thinking (CT) assessments that can be implemented in early childhood classrooms. We developed a new instrument called TechCheck for assessing CT skills in young children that does not require prior knowledge of computer programming. TechCheck is based on developmentally appropriate CT concepts and uses a multiple-choice “unplugged” format that allows it to be administered to whole classes or online settings in under 15 min. This design allows assessment of a broad range of abilities and avoids conflating coding with CT skills. We validated the instrument in a cohort of 5–9-year-old students (N = 768) participating in a research study involving a robotics coding curriculum. TechCheck showed good reliability and validity according to measures of classical test theory and item response theory. Discrimination between skill levels was adequate. Difficulty was suitable for first graders and low for second graders. The instrument showed differences in performance related to race/ethnicity. TechCheck scores correlated moderately with a previously validated CT assessment tool (TACTIC-KIBO). Overall, TechCheck has good psychometric properties, is easy to administer and score, and discriminates between children of different CT abilities. Implications, limitations, and directions for future work are discussed.

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We sincerely appreciate our Project Coordinator, Angela de Mik, who made this work possible. We would also like to thank all of the educators, parents, and students who participated in this project, as well as members of the DevTech research group at Tufts University.


This work was generously supported by the Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) grant entitled “Operation: Break the Code for College and Career Readiness.”

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Correspondence to Emily Relkin.

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Appendix 1. The six CT domains covered in TechCheck along with examples of the different tasks used to probe those domains


Appendix 2. Difficulty and discrimination indexes for the TechCheck assessment

Question Difficulty index Discrimination index Question Difficulty index Discrimination index
1 − 2.62 1.41 9 − 1.00 0.73
2 − 2.32 1.12 10 − 1.61 1.02
3 − 2.35 1.29 11 − 1.19 1.30
4 − 1.67 1.35 12 − 0.22 1.20
5 − 2.63 0.83 13 − 0.094 1.08
6 0.71 0.98 14 − 1.05 0.65
7 − 1.76 1.06 15 .70 0.525
8 − 1.63 0.88  

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Relkin, E., de Ruiter, L. & Bers, M.U. TechCheck: Development and Validation of an Unplugged Assessment of Computational Thinking in Early Childhood Education. J Sci Educ Technol 29, 482–498 (2020).

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  • Computational thinking
  • Assessment
  • Unplugged
  • Educational technology
  • Elementary education