Journal of Solution Chemistry

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 494–515 | Cite as

Volumetric and Viscometric Properties of Propanoic Acid in Equimolar Mixtures of N,N-dimethyl Formamide + Alkanols at T/K = 303.15, 313.15, and 323.15

  • M. Kondaiah
  • K. Sreekanth
  • D. Sravana Kumar
  • D. Krishna Rao


The densities, ρ, and viscosites, η, of mixtures of propanoic acid with equimolar mixtures of N,N-dimethyl formamide + methanol/ethanol/1-propanol, over the entire composition range of propanoic acid and including the pure liquids, have been measured at the temperatures T/K = 303.15, 313.15, and 323.15. From this experimental data, the excess molar volume, \( V_{\text{m}}^{\text{E}} \), deviation in viscosity, Δη, and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow, ΔG *E, have been determined at all three temperatures. The influence of temperature on these mixtures has been studied in terms of molecular interactions. The calculated deviation and excess parameters have been fitted to a Redlich–Kister type polynomial and the corresponding standard deviations were also evaluated. Negative values of \( V_{\text{m}}^{\text{E}} \) and positive values of Δη and ΔG *E are observed at all temperatures over the entire composition range in the mixtures studied. The observed negative and positive values of various excess and deviation parameters are attributed to the existence of strong interactions, like dipole–dipole interactions, H-bonding between the carbonyl group of acid molecules and hydroxyl group of alcohol groups, geometrical fitting of smaller molecules into the voids created by larger molecules in the liquid mixtures. The strength of these interactions in the mixtures was found to decrease with the rise in temperature and increase with an increase of chain length of the alcohols. The derived partial molar volumes and excess partial molar volumes also support the \( V_{\text{m}}^{\text{E}} \) results. The experimental viscosity data of all of these liquid mixtures have been correlated with four viscosity models, those of Grunberg and Nissan, Hind et al., Katti and Chaudhri, and Heric and Brewer. The Katti and Chaudhri model was found to be in good agreement with the experimental values.


Density Excess molar volume Hydrogen bonding Redlich–Kister type polynomial Viscosity models 



The authors are thankful to the University Grants Commission (U.G.C), New Delhi, Government of India, for providing financial support through an infrastructure Grant under the DRS-SAP program (Letter No. F4-1/2006/(BSR)/7-2/2007(BSR) dated 23-12-2008).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Kondaiah
    • 1
  • K. Sreekanth
    • 2
  • D. Sravana Kumar
    • 3
  • D. Krishna Rao
    • 2
  1. 1.NM Government Degree CollegeJogipetIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsAcharya Nagarjuna UniversityGunturIndia
  3. 3.SVLNS Government Degree CollegeBheemunipatnamIndia

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