Temperature Dependence of the Solubility of Acetaminophen in Propylene Glycol + Ethanol Mixtures
The thermodynamic functions Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy of solution, mixing and solvation of acetaminophen in propylene glycol (PG) + ethanol (EtOH) cosolvent mixtures were evaluated from solubility data measured at several temperatures, using the van't Hoff and Gibbs equations. The solubility was greater at 50% m/m of PG at 20.0^C, while it was greater at 80% of PG at 40.0 ^C where m/m refers to mass percent. The solvation of this drug is appreciably greater in the mixtures than in the pure solvents. By means of an enthalpy–entropy compensation analysis, complex behavior was found for the solution. From 0 up to 20% of PG and from 60 up to 100% of PG the solution process is enthalpy driven, whereas from 20 up to 60% of PG it is entropy driven. These facts can be explained in terms of a decrease in the energy required for cavity formation in the solvent for mixtures containing 20–60% of PG.
KeywordsAcetaminophen solubility solution thermodynamics activity coefficients
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