Earthquakes in southern Dalmatia and coastal Montenegro before the large 6 April 1667 event

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

The fourteenth to seventeenth century seismicity of southern Dalmatia (Croatia) and coastal Montenegro deserved to be fully reappraised because of the ascertained imperfect knowledge offered by modern seismological studies and of the awareness of the smokescreen effect due to the large 6 April 1667 M 6.4 earthquake that impacted exactly the area of study. The investigation consisted of (i) a reconsideration of earthquake records made available by previous studies and (ii) a systematic analysis of historical sources contemporary to the earthquakes, especially those not yet taken into account in seismological studies. The 168 contemporary and independent records collected cast a different light on more than 300 years of seismicity of this area. Records are reckoned to be unevenly distributed among the 39 studied earthquakes, out of which 15 still rely upon a single testimony. Each record has been reevaluated with respect to its content and attributed a level of reliability, which for those reporting other 14 events was so low to prevent us from confirming their real occurrence. Completely unreliable records have been identified and discussed, to conclude that they are at the root of five fake earthquakes. Altogether, 34 intensity values in EMS-98 were assessed related to 15 moderate and five damaging earthquakes. Existing and newly obtained data contributed to putting the pre-1667 seismicity of southern Dalmatia and coastal Montenegro into a substantially different perspective.

Keywords

Fourteenth to seventeenth century earthquakes Dalmatia (Croatia) Montenegro Earthquake records Macroseismic intensity EMS-98 6 April 1667 earthquake 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Indeed, this article would have not been possible without the help and support of many colleagues and friends along the years of its preparation, so many that probably some have already forgotten about their contribution, which we would like to deeply acknowledge: Valentina Montaldo and Christa Hammerl, for translation of important German sources; Giuliana Albini, for help in reading some obscure sixteenth century documents; Elena Greci, for translation from Russian of an important nineteenth century collection of Ragusan documents; Ina Cecić, for translations from Serbo-Croatian, a language not familiar to us, still; Relja Seferović and Stanislava Stojan, for their interest in this research; Vesna Rimac and all the colleagues of the Državni arhiv u Dubrovniku (State Archive of Dubrovnik, Croatia), who put up with my (PA) countless requests of documents in my many visits to the great archive in which they work. Finally, we would like to acknowledge the suggestions of the reviewers, who urged us to revise the draft manuscript, for the better.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

Fourteenth to seventeenth century sources

  1. Acta Consiliorum Reipublicae Ragusinae (1384–1388) Odluke veća Dubrovačke Republike - Acta Consiliorum Reipublicae Ragusinae, Dinić M J (ed) (1964) Tomus II, Beograd, 624 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. AGS (1563) Archivo General de Simancas, Sección de Estado, Legajo 1324, Venecia, años 1560–1565, item not numbered, 1 folio, Venice 26 June 1563, as transcripted in Rodriguez de la Torre F (1993) Documentacion existente en el Archivo General de Simancas (España) sobre algunos terremotos de Europa y Asia occidental, excluidas las peninsulas Ibérica e Italica. In: Stucchi M (ed) (1993) Historical investigation of European earthquakes. Materials of the CEC Project Review of Historical Seismicity in Europe, vol. 1, CNR, Milano, 75–87Google Scholar
  3. ASVe (1440–1797) Senato, Deliberazioni, Mar, 252 vols and 1285 filesGoogle Scholar
  4. ASVe (1525–1780) Collegio, Relazioni di ambasciatori, rettori e altre cariche, Dalmatia e Cattaro, b.65Google Scholar
  5. ASVe (1550-1740ca) Senato, Dispacci, Provveditori da Terra e da Mar e altre cariche, Provveditor in armataGoogle Scholar
  6. ASVe (1554–1581) Senato, Dispacci, Provveditori da Terra e da Mar e altre cariche, Dispacci del Provveditor in armata, b.820 (ex bb.1196+1197)Google Scholar
  7. ASVe (1563a) Senato, Deliberazioni, Mar, f. 28, 5 March-28 AugustGoogle Scholar
  8. ASVe (1563b–1564) Senato, Deliberazioni, Mar, f. 29, 17 September 1563–25 February 1564Google Scholar
  9. ASVe (1566–1748) Senato, Dispacci di rettori et altri, Dalmazia, 67 filesGoogle Scholar
  10. ASVe (1590ca-1797) Senato, Dispacci, Provveditori da Terra e da Mar e altre cariche, Provveditore Generale in Dalmazia e Albania, about 200 filesGoogle Scholar
  11. ASVe (1608a-h, j-n) Senato, Dispacci di rettori et altri, Dalmazia, b. 7, 1607-1609, Despatches of Tomaso Contarini: a) Cattaro, 25 May; a Cattaro, 5 August; Despatches of Francesco Morosini: h) Cattaro, 19 September; b Cattaro, 18 October; c Cattaro, 3 November; d Cattaro, 20 November; e Cattaro, 23 December; Senato, Dispacci, Provveditori da Terra e da Mar e altre cariche, Provveditore Generale in Dalmatia et Albania, b. 271 (ex b. 423), 1608-1609, Gian Giacomo Zane: b) Zara, 20 June; f Zara, 24 August; g Zara, 28 August; h Zara, 25 September; i Zara, 31 October; Senato, Deliberazioni, Mar, f. 180, June–August 1608: d) Resolution, Venice, 12 AugustGoogle Scholar
  12. ASVe (1609a-k) Senato, Dispacci di rettori et altri, Dalmazia, b. 7, 1607-1609, Despatches of Francesco Morosini: a) Cattaro, 6 January; a Cattaro, 25 January; f) Cattaro, 14 February; Senato, Dispacci, Provveditori da Terra e da Mar e altre cariche, Provveditore Generale in Dalmatia et Albania, b. 271 (ex b. 423), 1608-1609, Gian Giacomo Zane: b) Cattaro, 20 January; c) Cattaro, 20 January (attachment); e) Curzola, 30 January; Senato, Dispacci di rettori et altri, Dalmazia, b. 8, 1609-1610, Despatches of Francesco Morosini: g) Cattaro, 24 March; e Cattaro, 6 April; f Cattaro, 18 April; j) Cattaro, 9 June; k) Cattaro, 27 JulyGoogle Scholar
  13. ASVe (1632) Collegio, Relazioni di ambasciatori, rettori e altre cariche, b.65, 1525–1780: Final report of Francesco Tiepolo, Venice, 27 February, ff.1r-4rGoogle Scholar
  14. ASVe (1638–1640) Senato, Dispacci di rettori et altri, Dalmazia, b.44Google Scholar
  15. ASVe (1639) Senato, Dispacci, Provveditori da Terra e da Mar e altre cariche, Provveditore Generale in Dalmatia et Albania, b297(ex b 454), 1638–1640: Avisi, before 11 SeptemberGoogle Scholar
  16. Braccini GC (1632) Dell’incendio fattosi nel Vesuvio a XVI dicembre MDCXXI e delle sue cause, ed effetti. In Napoli, per Secondino Roncagliolo, 104 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Carafa G (1632) Gregorii Carafae […] In Opusculum de novissima Vesuvii Conflagratione, Epistola Isagogica. Neapoli, Franciscus Savius, 64 foliosGoogle Scholar
  18. Cerva S (1744a) Sacrae Metropolis Ragusinae. Manuscript, Library of the Dominican Monastery, Dubrovnik, 34-IX-6, vol. III, 273-275Google Scholar
  19. Cerva S (1744b) Prolegomena in Sacram Metropolim Ragusinam. Seferović R (ed) (2008) Editio princeps, Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, Zagreb and Dubrovnik, 597 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Collegio (1520) Resolution, Venice, 18 June. In: Marino Sanudo (1496–1533) Diarii, edited by R. Fulin, Venezia, 1880, vol. XXVIII, col. 630, f.365rGoogle Scholar
  21. Contarini D (1520) Letter, Cattaro, 22 May. In: Marino Sanudo (1496–1533) Diarii, edited by R. Fulin, Venezia, 1880, vol. XXVIII, col.626, f.363rGoogle Scholar
  22. DADu (1282-1568ca) Diversa Cancellariae, XXV, 235 volsGoogle Scholar
  23. DADu (1301–1414) Reformationes, II, 34 volsGoogle Scholar
  24. DADu (1384–1386) Reformationes, II, vol.26, ff. 1–82 + 101–150, on folio 1Google Scholar
  25. DADu (1415a–1808) Acta Consilii Rogatorum, III, 211 volsGoogle Scholar
  26. DADu (1415b–1808) Acta Minoris Consilii, V, 117 volsGoogle Scholar
  27. DADu (1416–1808) Acta Consilii Maioris, VIII, 67 volsGoogle Scholar
  28. DADu (1446–1785) Privata, XIX, 58 volsGoogle Scholar
  29. DADu (1496) Acta Consilii Maioris, VIII, vol.16, 1491–1498, f.195vGoogle Scholar
  30. DADu (1520a–gg) Acta Consilii Rogatorum, III, vol. 35, 1518–1520, Resolutions: a) 19 May 1520, f.225r; a 19 May 1520, f.225v; c) 22 May 1520, f.226v; d) 22 May 1520, f.226v; e) 22 May 1520, f.227v; f) 24 May, f.228v; g) 24 May, f.228v; h) 26 May, f.229v; i) 26 May, f.230r; j) 2 June, f.231r; k) 9 June, f.232v; l) 9 June, f.232v-233r; m) [12–15] June, f.240r; n) 26 June, f.240v; n 3 July, f.242v; o 10 July, f.243r; p 10 July, f.243r; q 17 July, f.245v; r 17 July, f.245v; s 21 July, f.247v; t 28 July, f.249v; u 28 July, f.250r; v 31 July, f.251r; w 31 July, f.251r; x 31 July, f.251v; aa) 7 August, f.253v; bb) 9 August, f.254r; cc) 27 August, f.259r; dd) 13 October, f.269v; ee) 13 October, f.269v; ff) 14 November, f.287v; gg) 29 November, f.296v; Acta Consilii Maioris, VIII, vol. 19, 1513–1522: Resolutions: o) 27 June, f.226rGoogle Scholar
  31. DADu (1544) Acta Consilii Rogatorum, III, vol.46, 1542–1544: Resolution, 8 March, f.227rGoogle Scholar
  32. DADu (1560ca-1603ca) Privata, XIX, vol.10 (formerly “Amministrazione Nicolò e Maruscia di Gozze”), Family records of Andrea de Pozza, f.1rGoogle Scholar
  33. DADu (1563a–e) Acta Consilii Rogatorum, III, vol.56 (1561–1563): Resolutions: a) 19 June, ff.240r-240v; b) 19 June, f.240v; c) 20 June, f.240r; d) 24 June, f.242r; e) 24 June, f.242rGoogle Scholar
  34. DADu (1631-1633) Acta Consilii Rogatorum, III, vol93Google Scholar
  35. DADu (1639a–z, aa-vv) Acta Consilii Rogatorum, III, vol.96 (1639–1640), Resolutions: a) 29 July, f.113r; d) 30 July, f.115r; e) 30 July, f.115r; f) 6 August, f.118r; g) 6 August, f.118r; h) 11 August, f.118v; i) 11 August, f.118v; j) 11 August, f.119r; s) 17 August, f.120r; t) 17 August, f.120v; aa) 22 August, f.120v-121r; bb) 22 August, f.121r; cc) 22 August, f.121r-121v; jj) 24 August, f.121r-122v; kk) 24 August, f.121r-122v; nn); 3 September, f.126r-127r; oo) 3 September, f.127v; pp) 26 September, f.130r; rr) 3 November, f.133v-134r; ss) 17 November, f.135v-136v; tt) 17 November, f.136v-139r; uu) 22 November, f.141r; vv) 22 November, f.142r; Acta Minoris Consilii, V, vol.76 (1635–1639), Resolutions: b) 30 July, f.250r; c) 30 July, f.250r; k) 12 August, f.251v; l) 12 August, f.251v; m) 13 August, f.251v; n) 13 August, f.251v; o) 16 August, f.252r; p) 16 August, f.252r; q) 16 August, f.252r; r) 16 August, f.252r; u) 17 August, f.253r; v) 17 August, f.253r; w) 17 August, f.253r; x) 17 August, f.253r; y) 17 August, f.253v; z) 17 August, f.253v; dd) 22 August, f.254r; ee) 22 August, f.254r; ff) 22 August, f.254v; gg) 24 August, f.255r; hh) 24 August, f.255r; ii) 24 August, f.255r; ll) 26 August, f.255v; mm) 28 August, f.255v; Acta et Diplomata, Litterae Rectoris et Minoris Consilii, f.5 (nn.381–560), qq) n.506, 27 September, ff.1v–rGoogle Scholar
  36. Doglioni GN (1598) Historia Venetiana […] delle cose successe dalla prima fondation di Venetia sino all’anno di Christo MDXCVII [1597], In Venetia, Appresso Damian Zenaro, 1055 pp.Google Scholar
  37. Doglioni GN (1606) Del Theatro Universale de’ Prencipi, et di tutte l’Historie del Mondo, Volume SecondoGoogle Scholar
  38. Giustiniani P (1576a) Rerum Venetarum ab urbe condita ad annum MDLXXV. Historia Petri Iustiniani Patritii Veneti Aloy. F. Senatorii ordinis viri ampliss. Nunc ab eodem denuo revisa, & rerum memorabilium additione exornata. Cum Indice locupletissimo, Cum Privilegio, Venetiis, Apud Ludovicum AvantiumGoogle Scholar
  39. Giustiniani P (1576b) Le Istorie venetiane del clarissimo S. Pietro Giustiniano […] cose notabili, occorse dal principio della fondatione della Città, sino all’anno MDLXXV, pur’hora in lingua volgare tradotte. In Venetia, Appresso Ludovico Avanzo, 359 ff., on f.309vGoogle Scholar
  40. Gondola G (d. 1650) Additamenta, Cose di qualche rilievo, che si trovano nello scritto di Giovanni Gondola e vennero trascurate dal Resti (1074–1440); con riferimento all’anno della cronica di questo e indicazione della pagina del nostro stampato Nodilo S (ed) (1893) Monumenta spectantia Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol 25, Scriptores, vol. 2, pp.388–394Google Scholar
  41. Marzelo P and Nadal Z (1520) Letter, Ragusa, 9 June. In: Marino Sanudo (1496–1533) Diarii, edited by R. Fulin, Venezia, 1880, vol. XXVIII, col.621, f.360rGoogle Scholar
  42. Nadal M (1520) Letter, Curzola, [before 30 May]. In: Marino Sanudo (1496–1533) Diarii, edited by R. Fulin, Venezia, 1880, vol. XXVIII, col.563, f.325rGoogle Scholar
  43. Newe Zeittung (1564) Newe Zeittung, Bericht, so geschehen von dem fürnemen Obersten Hauptman des Venedischen Kriegs Zeugs auff dem Meer, an den Durchleuchtigen Hertzogen von Venedig, antreffende die grausam und ungestüm Zerstörung der Stat Cattaro, weche durch einen Erdbidem den 6. tag Brachmonats des 1564. Jars zerstört, sampt andern erschröcklichen Zeichen, so erschienen seind. Gedruckt zu Augsburg, 4 foliosGoogle Scholar
  44. Razzi S (1595) La storia di Raugia, scritta nuovamente in tre libri. Lucca, reprint, Bologna, 1980, 184 ppGoogle Scholar
  45. Rezo S (1520) Oral report, Venice, 30 May. In: Marino Sanudo (1496–1533) Diarii, edited by R. Fulin, Venezia, 1880, vol. XXVIII, col.563, f.324Google Scholar
  46. Sanudo M (1496–1533) Diarii di Marino Sanudo, edited by R. Fulin, 58 vols. Venezia, 1880Google Scholar
  47. Schardius S (1574) Historicum opus in quatuor tomos divisum, BasileaeGoogle Scholar
  48. Thou (Thuanus) JA de (1580 ca) Historiarum sui temporis. Buckley S (ed) (1733) 7 vols, LondiniGoogle Scholar
  49. Trun V (1520) Letter, Cattaro, 22 May. In: Marino Sanudo (1496–1533) Diarii, edited by R. Fulin, Venezia, 1880, vol. XXVIII, col.626, f.362rGoogle Scholar
  50. Valaresso Z (1520) Letter, Liesna, 7–9 June. In: Marino Sanudo (1496–1533) Diarii, edited by R. Fulin, Venezia, 1880, vol. XXVIII, coll.626–627, f.362vGoogle Scholar
  51. von Degenfeld, Ch (1670 ca) Beschreibung der Reise so ich Christoff Freyherr von Degenfeldt im Jahr Christi 1661 von Dürnau aus angefangen, und im Jahr 1670 vollendet habe, aus was auf solchen Vorgängen, undt sonstens Marckwürdiges zu sehen gehabt. Manuscript, Kraichgau 3, Badische Landesbibliothek, Karlsruhe, xix + 932 foliosGoogle Scholar
  52. Zulian J (1520) Letter, Ragusa, 6 June. In: Marino Sanudo (1496–1533) Diarii, edited by R. Fulin, Venezia, 1880, vol. XXVIII, col.624, f.361rGoogle Scholar

Nineteenth to twentyfirst century studies

  1. Adamović V (1883) O trešnjama grada Dubrovnika. Biblioteka za povijest Dalmatinsku, Dubrovnik, 7, 15–19Google Scholar
  2. Albini P (2004) A survey of the past earthquakes in the Eastern Adriatic (14th to early 19th century). Ann Geophys 47(2/3):675–703.  https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-3331 Google Scholar
  3. Albini P (2011) The true case of the 1276 fake earthquake. Seismol Res Lett 82(1):111–114.  https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.82.1.111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albini P (2015) The great 1667 Dalmatia earthquake. An in-depth case study, Springer Briefs in Earth Sciences, The Netherlands, 95 pp. + Extra Materials, downloadable at ‘https://www.extras.springer.com/2015/978-3-319-16207-2’ Accessed 15 December 2017
  5. Albini P, Rovida A (2016) From written records to seismic parameters: the case of the 6 April 1667 Dalmatia earthquake. Geosci Lett 3(30).  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40562-016-0063-2
  6. Alexandre P (2012) Les séismes en Europe orientale au Moyen Âge. Ciel et Terre, Bulletin de la Société Royale belge d’Astronomie, de Météorologie et de Physique du Globe, Bruxelles, 128(6):162–173Google Scholar
  7. Ambraseys N (2009) Earthquakes in the Mediterranean and Middle East: a multidisciplinary study of seismicity up to 1900. Cambridge University Press, 968 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Ambraseys NN, Finkel C (1999) Unpublished Ottoman archival information on the seismicity of the Balkans during the period 1500-1800. In: Zachariadou E (ed), Natural disasters in the Ottoman Empire, Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Halcyon Days in Crete III, A Symposium Held in Rethymnon (Greece), 10-12 January 1997, 67–88Google Scholar
  9. Appendini FM (1802) Notizie istorico-critiche sulle antichità, storia e letteratura de' Ragusei. Martecchini, Ragusa, vol.1, 332 pp; vol.2, 336 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Appendini FM (1811) Memorie spettanti ad alcuni uomini illustri di Cattaro. Martecchini, Ragusa, 80 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Beritić L (1957) Ubikacija nestalinih građevinskih spomenika u Dubrovniku. Prilozi povijesti umjetnosti u Dalmaciji, 10, 1, 15–83Google Scholar
  12. Castellani E (2012) Voci distanti. La comunicazione tra governati e governanti nelle Bocche di Cattaro tra XVI e XVII secolo. Prova finale di laurea magistrale, Università Ca’ Foscari, Venezia, 142 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. Cattalinich G (1834–35) Storia della Dalmazia. Fratelli Battara, Zara, vol.1, 295 pp; vol.2, 292 pp; vol.3, 237 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Dominici P, Marcelli L (1979) Evoluzione storica delle misure orarie in Italia. Ann Geofis 32(1):131–212Google Scholar
  15. Ducellier A (2002) I terremoti balcanici e le loro eventuali correlazioni coi terremoti italiani fra i secoli VIII e XV. In: Contributi per la storia dei terremoti nel bacino del Mediterraneo, Osservatorio Vesuviano-INGV e Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici, Laveglia, Salerno, 69–100Google Scholar
  16. Finkel C (2017) Albini, Paola: the great 1667 Dalmatia earthquake. An in-depth case study. Springer Briefs in Earth Sciences, 2015, The Netherlands, 95 pp. J Seismol 21:1291–1293,doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10950-017-9674-0
  17. Garofalo E (2009) Terremoto e ricostruzione a Ragusa (Dubrovnik) nel 1520. Città e Storia 4(2):497–515Google Scholar
  18. Gelcich G (1880) Memorie storiche sulle Bocche di Cattaro. Woditzka, Zara, 207 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Gelcich G (1883) Biblioteca Storica della Dalmazia, vol. 8. Documenti, n.37, 105-120Google Scholar
  20. Gelcich G (1899) La Zedda e la dinastia dei Balsidi. Studi storici documentati. Tipografia Sociale Spalatina, Spalato, 338 ppGoogle Scholar
  21. Gelcich G (1903) Introduzione, note e appendice cronologica del prof. G. Gelcich a “Serafino Razzi (1595), La Storia di Ragusa scritta nuovamente in tre libri, preceduta dagli appunti biografico-critici del Pr. Lodovico Ferretti”, Ragusa, Editrice Tipografia Serbo-Ragusea, 295 pp. + 16 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. Giessberger H (1913) Das Ragusanische Erdbeben von 1667. Münchener Geographische Studien, München, vol 28, 74 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. Gliubich S (1856) Dizionario biografico degli uomini illustri della Dalmazia. Vienna and Zara, 325 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. Grünthal G (ed) (1998) European macroseismic scale 1998 EMS-98. Cahiers du Centre Européen de Géodynamique et de Séismologie 15, 99 ppGoogle Scholar
  25. Guidoboni E, Comastri A (2005) Catalogue of earthquakes and tsunamis in the Mediterranean area from the 11th to the 15th century. INGV-SGA, Bologna, 1037 ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Janeković Römer Z (2009) The family records of Andreas de Pozza from 1569-1603. Dubrovnik Ann 13:37–54Google Scholar
  27. Kastelic V, Vannoli P, Burrato P, Fracassi U, Tiberti MM, Valensise G (2013) Seismogenic sources in the Adriatic Domain. Mar Pet Geol 42:191–213.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2012.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kišpatić M (1891) Potresi u Hrvatskoj. Rad Jugoslavenske Akademje Znanosti i Umjetnosti, CVII, Razred Matematičko-Prirodoslovni, 81–164Google Scholar
  29. Kišpatić M (1892) Potresi u Hrvatskoj. Rad Jugoslavenske Akademje Znanosti i Umjetnosti, CIX, Razred Matematičko-Prirodoslovni, 1–79Google Scholar
  30. Madirazza F (1911) Storia e costituzione dei comuni dalmati. Narodna Tiskara, Split, 447 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Makuśev V (1867) Issledovanija ob istorićeskich Pamjatnikach i bytopisateljach Dubrovnika (Research on historical monuments and life of writers of Dubrovnik). Sanktpeterburg, Akademii nauk, 446 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Mallet R (1853) Third report on the facts of earthquakes phenomena, catalogue of recorded earthquakes from 1606 B.C. to A.D. 1850. Report of the 22nd Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1-176Google Scholar
  33. Markušić S, Gülerce Z, Kuka N, Duni L, Ivančić I, Radovanović S, Glavatović B, Milutinović Z, Akkar S, Kovačević S, Mihaljević J, Šalić R (2016) An updated and unified earthquake catalogue for the Western Balkan Region. Bull Earthq Eng 14(2):321–343.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-015-9833 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mihajlović J (1947) Seizmički karakter i trusne katastrofe našeg južnog Primorja od Stona do Ulcinja. Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti, posebna izdanja, knj. CXL, Prirodnjački i matematički spisi, knj. 39, VI + 149 pp., 8 sl., 14 priloga, BeogradGoogle Scholar
  35. Mihaljević J, Zupančič P, Kuka N, Kaluđerović N, Koçi R, Markušić S, Šalić R, Dushi E, Begu E, Duni L, Živčić M, Kovačević S, Ivančić I, Kovačević V, Milutinović Z, Vakilinezhad M, Fiket T, Gülerce Z (2017) BSHAP seismic source characterization models for the Western Balkan region. Bull Earthq Eng.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-017-0143-5
  36. Milošević M (1977) Vodič kroz arhivsku građu sa sumarnim inventarima muzejskih i crkvenih fondova i zbirki (Guide of archival material and inventories of funds and collections of museum and churches). Istorijski arhiv, Kotor, 442 pp (in Serbo-Croatian)Google Scholar
  37. Montandon F (1953) Les tremblements de terre destructeurs en Europe. Genéve, 195 ppGoogle Scholar
  38. Perrey A (1850) Mémoire sur les tremblements de terre, ressentis dans la péninsule Turco-Hellénique et en Syrie. Mémoires couronnés et mémoires des savants étrangers, Bruxelles, t 23, 73 ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Petter F (1834) Compendio geografico della Dalmazia con un’appendice sul Montenero […] versione dal tedesco. Fratelli Battara, Zara, 250 ppGoogle Scholar
  40. Petter F (1857) Dalmatien in seinen verschieden Beziehungen. Gotha, 2 volsGoogle Scholar
  41. Shebalin NV, Karnik V, Hadžievski D (eds) (1974) Catalogue of earthquakes of the Balkan region. I, UNDP-UNESCO Survey of the seismicity of the Balkan region. Skopje, 600 ppGoogle Scholar
  42. Sieberg A (1932) Erdbebengeographie. In: Gutenberg, B. (ed.), Handbuch der Geophysik, Vol. 4, Bornträger, Berlin, Germany, 687–1005Google Scholar
  43. Skurla S (1871) Sveti Vlaho. Tiskom Dragutina Pretnera, Dubrovnik, 205 ppGoogle Scholar
  44. Skurla S (1876) Ragusa. Cenni storici, Zagabria, 150 ppGoogle Scholar
  45. Solitro V (1844) Documenti storici sull’Istria e la Dalmazia, vol I. Di Gattei, Venezia, 376 ppGoogle Scholar
  46. Stucchi M, Rovida A, Gomez Capera AA, Alexandre P, Camelbeeck T, Demircioglu MB, Gasperini P, Kouskouna V, Musson RMW, Radulian M, Sesetyan K, Vilanova S, Baumont D, Bungum H, Fäh D, Lenhardt W, Makropoulos K, Martinez Solares JM, Scotti O, Živčić M, Albini P, Batllo J, Papaioannou C, Tatevossian R, Locati M, Meletti C, Viganò D, Giardini D (2013) The SHARE European Earthquake Catalogue (SHEEC) 1000-1899. J Seismol 17(2):523–544.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10950-012-9335-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Valentinelli G (1855) Bibliografia della Dalmazia e del Montenegro. Ljudevito Gaj, Zagabria, 339 ppGoogle Scholar
  48. Villari L (1904) The Republic of Ragusa, an episode of the Turkish conquest. J.M. Dent & Co., London 430 ppGoogle Scholar
  49. von Engel JC (1807) Geschichte des Freistaates Ragusa. Doll, Wien, 344 ppGoogle Scholar
  50. von Hoff, KEA (1840) Chronik der Erdbeben und Vulkan Ausbrüche. IV, Gotha, 470 ppGoogle Scholar
  51. Vulović S (1887) Gospa od Škrpjela (The islet of Our Lady of the Rocks). Zadar, 154 ppGoogle Scholar
  52. Živković T (2009) “Gesta regum Sclavorum”: Komentar. Istorijski institut & Manastir Ostrog, BeogradGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di MilanoMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations