Journal of Seismology

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 277–289 | Cite as

Seismic damage in the Lagina sacred area on the Mugla Fault: a key point for the understanding of the obliquely situated faults of western Anatolia

  • Volkan Karabacak
Original Article


The western Anatolia extension region consists of major E-W trending normal faults and numerous subsidiary faults aligned obliquely to major fault systems. In this paper, the NW-SE trending Mugla Fault was studied through an archaeoseismological analysis of the Lagina sacred area, which was supported by geological and geomorphological field evidence collected along the fault zone. The sacred area is cut by fractures that have caused extensive deformations and displacements in ruins along the fault. The orientations of collapsed columns, folding on the grounds, dilation, and tilting of the walls are systematic. The axes of the observed deformations are perpendicular to the Mugla Fault and could be related to coseismic effects. Although there are no historical records of a large earthquake on the Mugla Fault, the results of thermoluminescence and radiocarbon dating in the Lagina sacred area indicate that a large event occurred in the 4th c. ad or slightly later. Thus, considering the field evidence that has been collected along the Mugla Fault, it can be concluded that subsidiary faults aligned obliquely to major normal fault systems have strike-slip components and may be associated with a significant portion of the recent dynamics in western Anatolia.


Western Anatolia Archaeoseismology Earthquake faulting Lagina 



The first fieldwork for this study was conducted in May 2009 at the site. It was completed in January 2015 with the sampling. Dating of the samples was funded by the Eskisehir Osmangazi University Research Foundation (project no: 2014-534). Radiocarbon analyses were performed in the Beta Analytic Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. Thermoluminescence analyses were performed in the laboratory of the Institute of Nuclear Science (Ankara University). Special thanks go to Dr. Sevgi Altınok (Eskisehir Osmangazi University) for her comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. The author is grateful to the journal editors and two anonymous reviewers for their comments, which improved the manuscript.


  1. Alcicek H (2010) Stratigraphic correlation of the Neogene basins in southwestern Anatolia: regional palaeogeographical, palaeoclimatic and tectonic implications. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 291:297–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambraseys NN, Finkel CF (1987) The Saros-Marmara earthquake of 9 August 1912. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 15:189–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambraseys NN, Jackson JA (1998) Faulting associated with historical and recent earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Geophys J Int 133:390–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barka AA, Altunel E, Akyüz S, Şaroğlu F, Emre Ö, Kuşçu İ (1996) Güneybatı Anadolu’nun aktif fayları ve kireçtaşı fay şevlerinin incelenmesi (Investigations of active faults and limestone scarps in SW Anatolia). TÜBİTAK (YDABÇAG-237/G) Project Report, Ankara.Google Scholar
  5. Becker-Platen JD (1970) Lithostratigraphische Unterschungen im Kanozoikum Südwest Anatoliens (Türkei) –Kanozoikum und Braunkohlen der Turkei, Beiheft. Geol Jahrb 97:1–244Google Scholar
  6. Bottari C, Stiros SC, Teramo A (2009) Archaeological evidence for destructive earthquakes in Sicily between 400 B.C. and A.D. 600. Geoarchaeology 24:147–175. doi: 10.1002/gea.20260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Büyüközer A (2010) The rates which are applied in the infrastructure and stylobate settings of Lagina Hecate temple. Pamukkale University Journal of Social Science Institute 7:1–14Google Scholar
  8. Duman TY, Emre Ö, Özalp S, Elmacı H (2011) 1:250.000 scale active fault map series of Turkey, Aydın (NJ 35–11) Quadrangle. Serial Number: 7, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Ankara-TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  9. Ekici M (2010) Evaluation of coins found at Lagina Hecate sacred area. Pamukkale University Journal of Social Science Institute 7:31–38Google Scholar
  10. Ergin K, Güçlü U, Uz Z (1967) A catalogue of earthquakes for Turkey and surrounding area 11 AD to 1964 AD. ITU Earth Physics Institute Publications, IstanbulGoogle Scholar
  11. Eyidoğan H, Akıncı A, Gündoğdu O, Polat O, Kaypak B (1996) Gökova Havzasının güncel depremselliğinin incelenmesi (Investigation of recent seismicity of Gökova Basin). TÜBİTAK (YDABÇAG-238/G) Project Report, Ankara.Google Scholar
  12. Galadini F, Hinzen KG, Stiros S (2006) Archaeoseismology: methodological issues and procedure. J Seismol 10(4):395–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grünthal G (ed) (1998) European macroseismic scale. European Seismological Commission, Sub-commission on Engineering Seismology, Working Group Macroseismic scales, Luxembourg, 99 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Guidoboni E, Comastri A (2005) Catalogue of earthquakes and tsunamis in the Mediterranean area from the 11th to the 15th century. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e VulcanologiaGoogle Scholar
  15. Guidoboni E, Comastri A, Traina G (1994) Catalogue of ancient earthquakes in the Mediterranean area up to the 10th century. ING-SGA, BolognaGoogle Scholar
  16. Gürer ÖF, Özburan M, Sangu E, Gürbüz AY (2011) Muğla Yatağan Havzası ve Çevresinin Neotektonik İncelenmesi (Neotectonic investigation of the Mugla-Yatagan Basins and surrounding area), TÜBİTAK (108Y277) Project Report, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  17. Hinzen KG (2009) Simulation of toppling columns in archaeoseismology. Bull Seismol Soc Am 99(5):2855–2875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kahraman B, Dirik K, Özsayın E, Kutluay A (2011) Tectonics of the Yatağan - Eskihisar Basin, western Anatolia, Turkey. 64th Geological Congress of Turkey, Abstract Book, p. 4.Google Scholar
  19. Karabacak V, Yönlü Ö, Dökü E, Kıyak NG, Altunel E, Özüdoğru Ş, Yalçıner CÇ, Akyüz HS (2013) Analysis of seismic deformations at the Kibyra Roman stadion. SW Turkey. Geoarchaeology 28:531–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Karcz I, Kafri U (1978) Evaluation of supposed archaeoseismic damage in Israel. J Archaeol Sci 5:237–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Keefer DK (1984) Landslides caused by earthquakes. Geol Soc Am Bull 95:406–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Marco S, Kamai R, Hatzor YH, Wechsler N, Katz O (2008) Constraining location and size of historical earthquakes using mechanical analyses of damaged archeological sites: examples from Dead Sea Fault. European Seismological Commission ESC 2008, 31st General Assembly, Crete, pp 7–12, September 2008Google Scholar
  23. Michetti AM, Esposito E et al (2007) In: Vittori E, Guerrieri L (eds) Memorie Descrittive della Carta Geologica d’Italia, Environmental Seismic Intensity Scale 2007 – ESI 2007, vol LXXIV. Servizio Geologico d’Italia, Dipartimento Difesa del Suolo, APAT, SystemCart Srl, Roma, pp 7–54Google Scholar
  24. Pirazzoli PA, Laborel J, Stiros SC (1996) Earthquake clustering in the Eastern Mediterranean during historical times. J Geophys Res 101(B3):6083–6097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Şaroğlu F, Emre Ö, Boray A (1987) Türkiye’nin Diri Fayları ve Depremsellikleri (Active faults and seismicity of Turkey). General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Ankara, 394 pGoogle Scholar
  26. Şengör AMC, Görür N, Şaroglu F (1985) Strike slip faulting and related basin formation in zones of tectonic escape: Turkey as a case study. Edited by K.T. Biddle and N. Christie, Blick. SEPM Spec Publ 37:227–264Google Scholar
  27. Soysal H, Sipahioğlu S, Kolçak D, Altinok Y (1981) Türkiye ve çevresinin deprem katalogu, MÖ 2100-MS 1900 (Earthquake catalogue of Turkey and surroundings, 2100 BC-1900 AD). TUBITAK Publications (No. TBAG 341), 99 p.Google Scholar
  28. Stiros SC (1996) Identification of earthquakes from archaeological data: methodology, criteria and limitations. In: Stiros, S.C. & Jones, R.E. (eds), Archaeoseismology. Occasional Paper No. 7 of the Fitch Laboratory, British School at Athens, 129–152.Google Scholar
  29. Stiros S (2001) The AD 365 Crete earthquake and possible seismic clustering during the 4–6th centuries AD in the Eastern Mediterranean: a review of historical and archaeological data. J Struct Geol 23:545–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sümer Ö, İnci U, Sözbilir H (2013) Tectonic evolution of the Söke Basin: extension-dominated transtensional basin formation in western part of the Büyük Menderes Graben, Western Anatolia, Turkey. J Geodyn 65:148–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tan O, Tapırdamaz MC, Yörük A (2008) The earthquake catalogues for Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 17:405–418Google Scholar
  32. Tırpan AA (1997) Buluntular ışığında Lagina ve yakın çevresinin tarihi süreci (Historical process of Lagina and its surroundings in the light of findings). Selçuk University Faculty of Art and Science Journal 11:75–98Google Scholar
  33. Tırpan AA (2012) Lagina excavations 2011. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  34. Tırpan AA, Söğüt B (2003) Lagina Excavations 2002. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism Publications, ISSN 1017–7655, Ankara, pp 87–100Google Scholar
  35. Tırpan AA, Söğüt B (2010) Lagina excavations 2008. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism Publications, ISSN 1017–7655, Ankara, pp 505–527Google Scholar
  36. Uzel B, Sözbilir H, Özkaymak Ç (2012) Neotectonic evolution of an actively growing superimposed basin in Western Anatolia: the Inner Bay of İzmir, Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 21:439–471Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyEskisehir Osmangazi UniversityEskişehirTurkey

Personalised recommendations