A Low-Cost Fabrication Technique for the Growth of Single-Domain GdBCO Bulk Superconductor from Raw Metal Oxides

  • Miao Wang
  • Jun Ma
  • Xiaomei Wang
  • Chengxi Hu
  • Wanmin Yang
Original Paper


A single-domain GdBCO bulk superconductor is usually fabricated using a mixture of pre-reacted precursor powders (including GdBa2Cu3O7−δ and Gd2BaCuO5) by the top-seeded melt texture growth (TSMTG) process. However, the synthesis of pure-phase precursor powder by the solid-state sintering reaction can not only consume time for weeks but also prolong the fabrication process and can lead to a low-efficiency and high-cost process. In this paper, we reported the successful growth of single-domain GdBCO bulk superconductors by the top-seeded metallic oxide melt growth (TS-MOMG) process in which the raw materials of Gd2O3, BaO, and CuO, the three different metallic oxides, are just involved to fabricate the single-domain GdBCO bulk superconductors. After detailed investigations in the morphology, levitation force, trapped magnetic field, and critical temperature of the grown samples with different ratios, it was found that the simplified precursor-phase source can be used to fabricate the single-domain GdBCO bulk superconductors more efficiently, which can combine the crystal growth procedure and greatly economize the preparation cost and the time to the most extent.


Low cost Single-domain GdBCO bulk superconductors TS-MOMG Raw metal oxides 


  1. 1.
    Moon, F.C., Chang, P.: High-speed rotation of magnets on high T c superconducting bearings. Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 397 (1990).  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.102795 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Campbell, A.M., Cardwel, D.A.: Bulk high temperature superconductors for magnet application. Cryogenics 37(10), 567 (1997).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0011-2275(97)00068-4 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hull, J.R., Hanany, S., Matsumura, T., Johnson, B., Jones, T.: Characterization of a high temperature superconducting bearing for use in a cosmic microwave background polarimeter. Supercond. Sci. Technol. 18, S1 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-2048/18/2/001 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Parthasarathy, R., Seshubai, V.: Significant correlations between levitation-suspension forces and critical current densities in bulk YBCO/Ag composite superconductors fabricated by infiltration and growth processing technique. J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 29(6), 1439 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10948-016-3431-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Deng, Z.G., He, D.B., Zheng, J.: Levitation performance of rectangular bulk superconductor arrays above applied permanent magnet guide ways. IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 25(1), 3600106 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2014.2357752 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shi, Y.H., Hari Babu, N., Cardwell, D.A.: Development of a generic seed crystal for the fabrication of large grain (RE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors. Supercond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), L13 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-2048/18/4/L01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ogasawara, K., Sakai, N., Murakami, M.: Structure of subgrains in large single-grain RE-Ba-Cu-O (RE = Y, Sm, Nd) bulk superconductors. Phys. C 685, 357–360 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4534(01)00313-6 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kenfaui, D., Sibeud, P.F., Louradour, E., Chaud, X., Noudem, J.G.: An effective approach for the development of reliable YBCO bulk cryomagnets with high tapped field performances. Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(25), 3996 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201304083 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tomita, M., Murakami, M.: High temperature superconductor bulk magnets that can trap magnetic fields of over 17 tesla at 29 K. Nature 421, 517 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01350 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Durrell, J.H., Dennis, A.R., Jaroszynski, J., Ainslie, M.D., Palmer, K.G.B., Shi, Y.H., Campbell, A.M., Hull, J., Strasik, M., Hellstrom, E.E., Cardwell, D.A.: A trapped field of 17.6 T in melt-processed. Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(8), 082001 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-2048/27/8/082001 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li, J.W., Shi, Y.H., Dennis, A.R., Namburi, D.K., Durrell, J.H., Yang, W.M., Cardwell, D.A.: A novel pre-sintering technique for the growth of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting single grains from raw metal oxides. Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30, 095001 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6668/aa7999 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yao, X., Nomura, K., Huang, D. X., Izumi, T., Hobara, N., Nakamura, Y., Izumi, T., Shiohara, Y.: YBa2Cu3O7−δ thin-film-seeded Nd1+xBa2−xCu3O7−δ thick-film grown by liquid phase epitaxy. Phys. C 378–381, 1209 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4534(02)01691-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guo, L.S., Chen, Y.Y., Cheng, L., Li, W., Xiong, J., Tao, B. W., Yao, X.: Liquid phase epitaxy of REBCO (RE = Y, Sm) thick films on YBCO thin film deposited on LAO substrate. J. Cryst. Grow. 366, 47 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2012.12.019 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yang, P.T., Yang, W.M., Abula, Y., Su, X.Q., Zhang, L.L.: Effect of Li doping on the superconducting properties of single domain GdBCO bulks fabricated by the top-seeded infiltration and growth process. Ceram. Int. 43(3), 3010 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2016.11.094 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang, M., Yang, W.M., Yang, P.T., Feng, Z.L., Li, J.W., Wang, M.Z., Zhang, L.J.: Fabrication of high performance single domain GdBCO bulk superconductor by TSMT-IG process. Sci. Sin. 44(9), 907 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1360/SSPMA2013-00107 Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen, S.L., Yang, W.M., Li, J.W., Yuan, X.C., Ma, J., Wang, M.: A new 3D levitation force measuring device for REBCO bulk superconductors. Phys. C 496, 39 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physc.2013.07.004 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang, M., Yang, W.M., Li, J.W., Feng, Z.L., Chen, S.L.: Fabrication method of large size single domain GdBCO bulk superconductor using a new solid source. Phys. C 492, 129 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physc.2013.05.007 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhou, D., Hara, S., Li, B., Noudem, J., Izumi, M.: Flux pinning properties of Gd-Ba-Cu-O trapped field magnets grown by a modified top-seeded melt growth. Supercond. Sci. Technol. 27(4), 044015 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-2048/27/4/044015 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ScienceXi’an Aeronautical UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.School of Physics and Electronic Information EngineeringQinghai Normal UniversityXiningChina
  3. 3.School of Physics and Information TechnologyShaanxi Normal UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations