Effect of the Milling Conditions on the Properties of ZnO Doped with Fe

  • Á. Casanova
  • G. A. Pérez Alcázar
  • W. R. Aguirre
  • D. Salazar
  • Ligia E. Zamora
Original Paper


(Zn0.9Fe0.1)O powders were produced with different ball to powder weight ratios (BPR) by ball milling of ZnO and Fe elemental powders. The BPR used were 15:1, 20:1, 25:1, and 30:1. The prepared samples were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS). The XRD patterns showed a zinc oxide (ZnO) single phase with wurtzite structure, except for the 15:1 ratio, which exhibits an additionally bcc structure associated to α-Fe. The mean crystallite sizes were found to be around 100 Å. The Mössbauer spectra were fitted using two doublets, associated to the incorporation of Fe ions into the ZnO lattice, which correspond to the Fe3+ and Fe2+ oxidation states except for the 15:1 ratio, for which an additional sextet was necessary to obtain a good fit, this sextet was associated to segregated Fe into the sample. The increase of the BPR allowed that all Fe penetrated into the ZnO matrix. The magnetization measurement using VSM reveals that the system exhibits ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. For sample with BPR 15:1, the ferromagnetism is due to the segregated Fe, and for higher BPRs, from 20:1 up to 30:1, we propose that their ferromagnetism is due to the percolation of polarons. These polarons appear due to the oxygen vacancies (detected by XRD) which are occupied by electrons, which appear in the charge balance. Exchange interaction between the electron spins located in the vacancies or holes and those of the magnetic impurities (Fe atoms) leads to the formation of bound magnetic polarons, which percolate, producing in this way magnetic behavior.


Diluted magnetic semiconductors Mössbauer X-ray diffraction Magnetic measurements 


Funding Information

This work was support by Universidad del Valle. C.I. 7975, COLCIENCIAS (project # 110671250407) and CENM.


  1. 1.
    Wolf, S.A., Awschalom, D.D., Buhrman, R.A., Daughton, J.M., Von Molnár, S., Roukes, M.L., Chtchelkanova, A.Y., Treger, D.M.: Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future. Science 294, 1488 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ohno, H.: Making nonmagnetic semiconductors ferromagnetic. Science 281, 951 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dietl, T., Ohno, H., Matsukura, F., Cibert, J., Ferrand, D.: Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors. Science 287(5455), 1019 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zener, C.: Interaction between the d shells in the transition metals. Phys. Rev. 81, 440 (1951)ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Torrance, J.B., Shafer, M.W., McGuire, T.R.: Bound magnetic polarons and the insulator-metal transition in EuO. Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1168 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Coey, J.M.D., Venkatesan, M., Fitzgerald, C.B.: Donor impurity band exchange in dilute ferromagnetic oxides. Nat. Mater. 4, 173 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ueda, K., Tabata, H., Kawai, T.: Magnetic electric properties of transition-metal-doped ZnO films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 988 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sharma, P., Gupta, A., Rao, K.V., Owens, F.J., Sharma, R., Ahuja, R., Guillen, J.M., Johansson, B., Gehring, G.A.: Ferromagnetism above room temperature in bulk and transparent thin films of Mn-doped ZnO. Nat. Mater. 2, 673 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Young, A.G., Seung-Iel, P., Kim, S.J., Bo, W.L., Sung, K.C.: Preparation of Fe-doped ZnO ferromagnetic semiconductor by sol-gel method with hydrogen treatment. IEEE Trans. Magn. 41, 10 (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karmakar, D., Mandal, S.K., Kadam, R.M., Paulose, P.L., Rajarajan, A.K., Nath, T.K., Das, A.K., Dasgupta, I., Das, G.P.: Ferromagnetism in Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals: experiment and theory. Phys. Rev. B 75, 144404 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fan, L., Dongmei, J., Xueming, M.: The influence of annealing on the magnetism of Fe-doped ZnO prepared by mechanical alloying. Phys. B Condens. Matter 405(6), 1466 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Elilarassi, R., Chandrasekaran, G.: Synthesis and characterization of ball milled Fe-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor. Optoelectron. Lett. 8(2), 109 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lin, Y., Jiang, D., Lin, F., Shi, W., Ma, X.: Fe-doped ZnO magnetic semiconductor by mechanical alloying. J. Alloys Compd. 436(1-2), 30 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ramos, J.E., Montero-Muñoz, M., Coaquira, J.A.H., Rodríguez-Páez, J.E. : Evidence of a cluster glass-like behavior in Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles. J. Appl. Phys. 115, 17E123 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Beltrán, J.J., Barrero, C.A., Punnoose, A.: Understanding the role of iron in the magnetism of Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles. Phys. Chem. 17, 15284 (2015)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zamora, L.E., Paz, J.C., Piamba, J.F., Tabares, J.A., Pérez alcázar, G.A.: A Mössbauer and magnetic study of ball milled Fe-doped ZnO Powders. Hyperfine Interact 232, 111 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abdel-Baset, T.A., Fang, Y.-W., Anis, B., Duan, C.-G., Abdel-Hafiez, M.: Structural and magnetic properties of transition-metal-doped Zn1−xFexO. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 11, 115 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Larson, A.C., Von Dreele, R.B.: General structure analysis system GSAS, Los Alamos National Laboratory Report No. LAUR 86-748, 1 (2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Izumi, F., Momma, K.: Three-dimensional visualization in powder diffraction. Solid State Phenom. 130, 15 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Teillet, J., Varret, F.: Université du Maine, unpublished MOSFIT programGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Murad, E., Cashion, J.: Mössbauer spectroscopy of environmental material and their industrial utilization. Springer-Science 5, 69 (2004)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cullity, B.D., Graham, C., 2nd edn., p. 360. Wiley, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mishra, A.K., Das, D.: Investigation on Fe-doped ZnO nanostructures prepared by a chemical route. Mater. Sci. Eng. B 171, 5 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kaminski, A., Das Sarma, S.: Polaron percolation in diluted magnetic semiconductors. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 247202 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bhatt, R.N., Berciu, M., Kennett, M.P., Wan, X.: Diluted magnetic semiconductors in the low carrier density regime. J. Supercond.: Incorporating Novel Magnetism 15(1), 71 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Á. Casanova
    • 1
  • G. A. Pérez Alcázar
    • 1
  • W. R. Aguirre
    • 1
  • D. Salazar
    • 2
  • Ligia E. Zamora
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de FísicaUniversidad del ValleCaliColombia
  2. 2.BC MaterialsBizkaia Science and Technology ParkDerioSpain

Personalised recommendations