Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Sn1 − x Ni x O2 Thin Films Prepared by Flash Evaporation Technique

  • M. Kuppan
  • S. Kaleemulla
  • N. Madhusudhana Rao
  • C. Krishnamoorthi
  • G. Venugopal Rao
  • I. Omkaram
  • D. Sreekantha Reddy
Original Paper


An effort was made to develop semiconductor oxide-based room temperature dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) thin films based on wide band gap and transparent host lattice with transition metal substitution. The Sn\(_{\mathrm {1}-x}\)Ni\(_{x}\textit {O}_{\mathrm {2}}\) (\(x\,= \mathrm {0.00, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and \,0.15}\)) thin film samples were prepared on glass substrates by flash evaporation technique. All the samples were shown single phase crystalline rutile structure of host SnO\(_{\mathrm {2}}\) with dominant (110) orientation. The Ni substitution promotes reduction of average crystallite size in SnO\(_{\mathrm {2}}\) as evidenced from the reduction of crystallite size from 40 (SnO\(_{\mathrm {2}}\)) to 20 nm (Sn\(_{\mathrm {0.85}}\)Ni\(_{\mathrm {0.15}}\textit {O}_{\mathrm {2}}\)). In the energy dispersive spectra as well as X-ray photoelectron spectra of all the samples show, the chemical compositions are close to stoichiometric with noticeable oxygen deficiency. The crystalline films were formed by coalescence of oval-shaped polycrystalline particles of 100 nm size as evidenced from the electron micrographs. The energy band gap of DMS films decreases from 4 (SnO\(_{\mathrm {2}}\)) to 3.8 eV (x \(=\) 0.05) with increase of Ni content. The magnetic hysteresis loops of all the samples at room temperature show soft ferromagnetic nature except for SnO\(_{\mathrm {2}}\) film. The SnO\(_{\mathrm {2}}\) films show diamagnetic nature and it converts into ferromagnetic upon substitution of 3 % Sn\(^{\mathrm {4+}}\) by Ni\(^{\mathrm {2+}}\). The robust intrinsic ferromagnetism (saturation magnetization, 21 emu/cm\(^{\mathrm {3}}\)). Further increase of Ni content weakens ferromagnetic strength due to Ni-O antiferromagnetic interactions among the nearest neighbour Ni ions via O\(^{\mathrm {2-}}\) ions. The observed magnetic properties were best described by bound magnetic polarons model.


Thin films Dilute magnetic semiconductors Ferromagnetism Flash evaporation 



Authors thank VIT-SIF for providing XRD and UV-Vis spectrometer facilities.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Kuppan
    • 1
  • S. Kaleemulla
    • 1
  • N. Madhusudhana Rao
    • 1
  • C. Krishnamoorthi
    • 1
  • G. Venugopal Rao
    • 2
  • I. Omkaram
    • 3
  • D. Sreekantha Reddy
    • 4
  1. 1.Thin Films Laboratory, Centre for Crystal GrowthVIT UniversityVelloreIndia
  2. 2.Materials Physics DivisionIndira Gandhi Centre for Atomic ResearchKalpakkamIndia
  3. 3.Department of Electronics and Radio EngineeringKyung Hee UniversityYongin-siRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Department of Physics and Sungkyukwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT)Sungkyunkwan UniversitySuwonRepublic of Korea

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