Synthesis and Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in Co-doped In2 O 3 Nanoparticles

  • Somchai Sonsupap
  • Wichaid Ponhan
  • Kwanruthai Wongsaprom
Original Paper


We report room-temperature ferromagnetism in Co-doped In2 O 3 nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple polymerized complex method and were thoroughly characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The XRD results confirmed the formation of In2 O 3 phase with cubic structure. The particle sizes of the powder were found to be 18–23 nm as evaluated by the X-ray line broadening method. The corresponding selected area electron diffraction analysis further confirmed the formation of cubic structure of In2 O 3 without any impurity phases. The valence state of Co ions was determined by using X-ray absorption near edge structure. The nanoparticles of Co-doped In2 O 3 revealed room-temperature ferromagnetism with the magnetization of ∼0.013–0.026 emu/g at 10 kOe. Our results indicate that room-temperature ferromagnetism of Co-doped In2 O 3 system is intrinsic and is not a result of any ferromagnetic impurity phases.


Room-temperature ferromagnetism Indium oxide Nanoparticles Cubic structure X-ray absorption near edge structure 



The authors would like to thank the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (BL8) (Public Organization), Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, for XAS facilities. This work was supported by Mahasarakham University Development Fund and Mahasarakham University, Thailand.


  1. 1.
    Coey, J. M. D., Venkatesan, M., Fitzgerald, C. B.: Nat. Mater. 4, 173 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Awschalom, D. D., Flatte’, M. E.: Nat. Phys. 3, 153 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fukumura, T., Yamada, Y., Toyosaki, H., Hasegawa, T., Koinuma, H., Kawasaki, M.: Appl. Surf. Sci. 223, 62 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fitzgerald, C. B., Venkatesan, M., Douvalis, A. P., Huber, S., Coey, J. M. D., Bakas, T.: J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7390 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Matsumoto, Y., Murakami, M., Shono, T., Hasegawa, T., Fukumura, T., Kawasaki, M., Ahmet, P., Chikyow, T., Koshihara, S. -Y., Koinuma, H.: Science 291, 854 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shinde, S. R., Ogale, S. B., Das Sarma, S., Simpson, J. R., Drew, H. D., Lofland, S. E., Lanci, C., Buban, J. P., Browning, N. D., Kulkarni, V. N., Higgins, J., Sharma, R. P., Greene, R. L., Venkatesan, T.: Phys. Rev. B 67, 115211 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bryan, J. D., Heald, S. M., Chambers, S. A., Gamelin, D. R.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 11640 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Martínez, B., Sandiumenge, F., Balcells, Ll., Arbiol, J., Sibieude, F., Monty, C.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103113 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lawes, G., Risbud, A. S., Ramirez, A. P., Seshadri, R.: Phys. Rev. B 71, 045201 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Philip, J., Punnuoose, A., Kim, B. I., Reddy, K. M., Layne, S., Holmes, J. O., Satpati, B., Leclair, P. R., Santos, T. S., Moodera, J. S.: Nat. Mater. 5, 298 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fitzgerald, C. B., Venkatesan, M., Dorneles, L. S., Gunning, R., Stamenov, P., Coey, J. M. D., Stampe, P. A., Kennedy, R. J., Moreira, E. C., Sias, U. S.: Phys. Rev. B 74, 115307 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Coey, J. M. D., Douvalis, A. P., Fitzgerald, C. B., Venkatesan, M.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1332 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Park, J. H., Kim, M. G., Jang, H. M., Ryu, S.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1338 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zheng, R. K., Liu, H., Zhang, X. X.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2589 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    He, J., Xu, S., Yoo, Y. K., Xue, Q., Lee, H. -C., Cheng, S., Xiang, X. -D., Dionne, G. F.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 052503 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Peleckis, G., Wang, X. L., Dou, S. X.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 132507 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Peleckis, G., Wang, X., Dou, S. X.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 022501 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chu, D., Zeng, Y. -P., Jiang, D.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 182507 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hong, N. H., Sakai, J., Huong, N. T., Brize, V., Magn, J.: Magn. Mater. 302, 228 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ruan, K. B., Ho, H. W., Khan, R. A., Ren, P., Song, W. D., Huan, A. C. H., Wang, L.: Solid State Commun. 150, 2158 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sai Krishna, N., Kaleemulla, S., Amarendra, G., Madhusudhana Rao, N., Krishnamoorthi, C., Rigana Begam, M., Omkaram, I., Sreekantha Reddy, D.: Physica B: Condensed Matter 466–467, 6 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wongsaprom, K., Sonsupap, S., Maensiri, S., Kidkhunthod, P.: Appl. Phys. A-Mater 121, 239 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Meng, X., Tang, L., Li, J.: J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 17569 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sonsupap, S., Swatsitang, E., Maensiri, S., Wongsaprom, K., Chiang Mai, J.: Science 42, 752 (2015)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cullity, B. D., Stock, S. R.: Elements of X-ray Diffraction, 3rd edn., p 388. Printice Hall, New Jersey (2001)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Phokha, S., Pinitsoontorn, S., Maensiri, S.: J. Appl. Phys. 112, 113904 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sudakar, C., Thakur, J. S., Lawes, G., Naik, R., Naik, V. M.: Phys. Rev. B 75, 054423 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sahoo, S., Gaur, A. P. S., Arora, A. K., Katiyar, R. S.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 510, 242 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    White, W. B., Keramidas, V. G.: Spectrochimica Acta A 28, 501 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Akai, T., Okuda, M., Horiuchi, K., Matsuura, J., Koike, Y., Yimagawa, M., Fujikawa, T.: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 6360 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hallmeier, H., Sauter, S., Szargan, R.: Inorg. Chem. Commun. 4, 153 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tiwari, A., Bhosle, V. M., Ramachandran, S., Sudhakar, N., Narayan, J., Budak, S., Gupta, A.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 142511 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Phokha, S., Prabhakaran, D., Boothroyd, A., Pinitsoontorn, S., Maensiri, S.: Microelectron. Eng. 126, 93 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yan, S., Ge, S., Zuo, Y., Qiao, W., Zhang, L.: Scripta Meter 61, 387 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tien, L. -C., Hsieh, Y. -Y.: Mater. Res. Bull. 60, 690 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chandradass, J., Bae, D. S., Kim, K. H.: Adv. Powder Technol. 22, 370 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Somchai Sonsupap
    • 1
  • Wichaid Ponhan
    • 2
  • Kwanruthai Wongsaprom
    • 1
  1. 1.Physical Materials Science Unit Research, Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceMahasarakham UniversityMahasarakhamThailand
  2. 2.Program of Physics, Faculty of Science and TechnologyRajabhat Mahasarakham UniversityMahasarakhamThailand

Personalised recommendations