Skip to main content
Log in

Development of Magnetic B-H Hysteresis Loops Through Stages of Microstructure Evolution of Bulk BaFe12 O 19

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

A series of polycrystalline BaFe12O19 bulk samples produced have been used to investigate the parallel evolving relationship between the microstructural and magnetic properties of the magnetic material. The raw material starting powders were prepared via the mechanical alloying method and subsequently moulded and pressed by using a hydraulic pressing machine. The nanosized samples were sintered from 700 to 1300 C with 100 C increments in static air conditions. The sintered samples were characterized and analysed with increasing sintering temperature to study their crystallinity, microstructural and magnetic properties. The result shows the magnetic B-H hysteresis loop varies with grain size, which was attributed to the increasing crystallinity and changing magnetic parameters. The microstructural properties like grain size were measured by using FeSEM, the phase analysis of the material was analysed with X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and density was determined by a densimeter, while the hysteresis loop was measured by a B-H tracer and Curie temperature was measured with an impedance analyser. The characterized samples were found to be divided into three groups which consisted of grain size varied from 0.30 to 0.39 μm (paramagnetic state), 0.46 to 0.94 μm (intermediate ferromagnetic state) and ≥1.78 μm (strong ferromagnetic state). For the latter two groups, slanting sigmoid hysteresis loops were observed. Well-defined sigmoid-shaped B-H hysteresis loops were obtained when high crystallinity was attained, allowing strong exchange interaction between neighbouring atomic magnetic moments. This indicated that the ferromagnetic state had been achieved. The observed three B-H hysteresis groups exhibited different magnetic properties, and these behaviours are useful for industrial applications.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Harris, V.G., Chen, Z., Chen, Y., Yoon, S., Sakai, T., Gieler, A., Yang, A., He, Y., Ziemer, K.S., Sun, N.X., Vittoria, C.: Ba-hexaferrite films for next generation microwave devices. J. Appl. Phys. (2006). doi:10.1063/1.2165145

  2. Harris, V.G., Geiler, A., Chen, Y., Yoon, S.D., Wu, M., Yang, A., Chen, Z., He, P., Parimi, P.V., Zuo, X., Patton, C.E., Abe, M., Acher, O., Vittoria, C.: Recent advances in processing and applications of microwave ferrites. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. (2009). doi:10.1016/j.jmmm.2009.01.004

  3. Ren, P., Guan, J.G., Cheng, X.D.: Influence of heat treatment conditions on the structure and magnetic properties of barium ferrite BaFe12O19 hollow microspheres of low density. Mater. Chem. Phys. 98, 90–94 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Sözeri, H.: Effect of pelletization on magnetic properties of BaFe12O19. J. Alloys Compd. 486(1-2), 809–814 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Mohsen, Q.: Barium hexaferrite synthesis by oxalate precursor route. J. Alloys Compd. 500(2010), 125–128 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Goldman, A.: Modern Ferrite Technology. Springer, Pittsburgh (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bsoul, I., Mahmood, S.H.: Magnetic and structural properties of BaFe12−xGaxO19 nanoparticles. J. Alloys Compd. 489, 110–114 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Chen, Y., Li, C.P., Chen, H., Chen, Y.J.: One-dimensional nanomaterials synthesized using high-energy ball milling and annealing process. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 7, 839–846 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Tudorachea, F., Popab, P.D., Brinzaa, F., Tascua, S.: Structural investigations and magnetic properties of BaFe12O19 crystals. Acta Phys. Pol. A 121, 95–97 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Ismail, I., Hashim, M., Matori, K.A., Alias, R., Hassan, J.: Milling time and BPR dependence on permeability and losses of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 synthesized via mechanical alloying process. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 1470–1476 (2011)

  11. Kang, S.J.: Sintering: Densification, Grain Growth, and Microstructure. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Harris, V.G.: Modern microwave ferrites. IEEE Trans. Magn. 48(3), 1075–1104 (2012). doi:10.1109/TMAG.2011.2180732

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  13. Waje, S.B., Hashim, M., Yusoff, W.D., Abbas, Z.: X-ray diffraction studies on crystallite size evolution of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles prepared using mechanical alloying and sintering. Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(10), 3122–3127 (2010)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  14. Mousavi Ghahfarokhi, S.E., Ranjbar, F., Zargar Shoushtari, M.: A study of the properties of SrFe12−x CoxO19 nanoparticles. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 349, 80–87 (2014)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  15. Gordani, G.R., Ghasemi, A., Saidi, A.: Enhanced magnetic properties of substituted Sr-hexaferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method. Ceram. Int. 40(3), 4945–4952 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Kiani, E., Rozatian, A.S.H., Yousefi, M.H.: Structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of SrFe12−2x (Mn0.5Cd0.5Zr)xO19 ferrite. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 361, 25–29 (2014)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  17. Phuoc, T.X., Chen, R.: Modeling the effect of particle size on the activation energy and ignition temperature of metallic nanoparticles. Combust. Flame. 159, 416–419 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Li, X., Wang, G.: Low-temperature synthesis and growth of superparamagnetic Zn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 nanosized particles. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321, 1276–1279 (2009)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  19. Jarcho, M., Bolen, C.H., Thomas, M.B., Bobick, J., Kay, J.F., Doremus, R.H.: Hydroxylapatite synthesis and characterization in dense polycrystalline form. J. Mater. Sci. 11, 2027–2035 (1976)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  20. Jiles, D.: Introduction to the Electronic Properties of Materials. Chapman & Hall, London (1994)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  21. Hadjipanayis, G.C.: Nanophase hard magnets. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 200, 373–391 (1999)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  22. Liu, M., Song, F., Meng, X.: Structural evolution and magnetic properties of SrFe12O19 nanofibers by electrospinning. J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 53, 448–453 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to send the fullest gratitude to the Faculty of Science and Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ismayadi Ismail.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Huang, L.Z., Hashim, M., Ismail, I. et al. Development of Magnetic B-H Hysteresis Loops Through Stages of Microstructure Evolution of Bulk BaFe12 O 19 . J Supercond Nov Magn 28, 3075–3086 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10948-015-3099-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10948-015-3099-1

Keywords

Navigation